CH14 - THE THE SECTIONAL CRISIS America Past and Present Chapter 14 The Compromise of 1850 North and South conflict violently over slavery slavery s

CH14 - THE THE SECTIONAL CRISIS America Past and Present...

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Unformatted text preview: THE THE SECTIONAL CRISIS America: Past and Present, Chapter 14 The Compromise of 1850 § North and South conflict violently over slavery’ slavery ’s extension into the territories § Professional politicians mediate conflict The Problem of Slavery in the Mexican Cession § Slavery traditionally kept out of politics § Congressional power over slavery includes § § setting conditions to make territories states forbidding slavery in new states § Mexican Cession of 1848 puts status of slavery in new territory into question The The Wilmot Proviso Launches the Free-Soil Movement Free§ Mexican War mobilizes antislavery groups § Wilmot Proviso--ban all blacks from new Proviso--ban territories to preserve for white farmers § Proviso passes in House, fails in Senate § Battle over the Proviso foreshadows sectional conflict of 1850s Squatter Sovereignty and the Election of 1848 § Democratic presidential candidate Lewis Cass proposes popular sovereignty § § Congress allows territorial settlers to decide supported by many antislavery forces § Free-Soil candidate Martin Van Buren Freedemands definite limits on slavery § Whig Zachary Taylor takes no position § Taylor wins election with less than 50% Taylor Taylor Takes Charge § Taylor proposes admitting California and New Mexico as states immediately § South reacts angrily § § not enough time for planters to settle immediate admission would result in ban § Proposed Nashville convention prompts fears of Southern secession Forging a Compromise § Henry Clay ’s compromise package § § § § California admitted as a free state slave trade prohibited in District of Columbia strong fugitive slave law enlarged New Mexico territory to be admitted on basis of popular sovereignty § Taylor’s death permits passage of slightly Taylor’ altered Compromise as separate measures The Compromise of 1850 Political Political Upheaval, 1852-1856 1852§ Whigs and Democrats manage controversy in 1850 § Sectionalism destroys both parties in 1850s The The Party System in Crisis § Parties need new issues after 1850 § Democrats succeed § § claim credit for the nation's prosperity promise to defend the Compromise of 1850 § Whigs fail, become internally divided § 1852--Whig Winfield Scott loses a 1852--Whig landslide to Democrat Franklin Pierce The KansasThe Kansas- Nebraska Act Raises a Storm § 1854--Stephen Douglas introduces 1854--Stephen Kansas -Nebraska bill § § apply popular sovereignty to Kansas, Nebraska repeal Missouri Compromise line § Act passes on sectional vote § Northerners outraged The Kansas- Nebraska Act of Kansas1854 The Kansas- Nebraska Act KansasRaises a Storm (2) § Whig indecision causes party to disintegrate § Mass defection among Northern Democrats § “Anti-Nebraska” candidates sweep North Anti-Nebraska” in 1854 congressional elections § Democrats become sole Southern party § President Pierce’s effort to acquire Cuba Pierce’ provokes antislavery firestorm An An Appeal to Nativism: The KnowKnow- Nothing Episode § Know-Nothings (American Party) appeals Knowto anti-Catholic sentiment anti- § 1854--American party surges 1854--American § By 1856 Know-Nothings collapse Know§ Probable cause: no response to slavery Congressional Election of 1854 Kansas and the Rise of the Republicans § Republican party unites former Whigs, KnowKnow-Nothings, Free-Soilers , Democrats Free-Soilers, § Appeals to Northern sectional sympathies § Defends West for white, small farmers § “Bleeding Kansas ” helps Republicans § § struggle among abolitionists, proslavery forces for control of Kansas territory Republicans use conflict to appeal for voters “Bleeding Kansas” Kansas” Sectional Division in the Election of 1856 § Republican John C. Frémont seeks votes Fré only in free states § Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore champions Knowsectional compromise § Democrat James Buchanan defends the Compromise of 1850, carries election § Republicans make clear gains in North The House Divided, 1857-1860 1857 Sectional quarrel becomes virtually irreconcilable under Buchanan § Growing sense of deep cultural differences, opposing interests between North and South Cultural Cultural Sectionalism § Major Protestant denominations divide into northern and southern entities over slavery § Southern literature romanticizes plantation life § South seeks intellectual, economic independence § Northern intellectuals condemn slavery § Uncle Tom's Cabin an immense success in North The Dred Scott Case § Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857): Supreme Court can decide on slavery in the territories § Court refuses narrow determination of case § Major arguments § § Scott has no right to sue because neither he nor any other black, slave or free, a citizen Congress has no authority to prohibit slavery in territories, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional § Ruling strengthens Republicans The Lecompton Controversy § 1857--rigged Lecompton convention drafts 1857--rigged constitution to make Kansas a slave state § House defeats attempt by Buchanan, Southerners to admit Kansas § Lecompton constitution referred back § People of Kansas repudiate § Stephen Douglas splits Democrats in break with Buchanan over Lecompton Debating Debating the Morality of Slavery § Lincoln § § § § decries “ Southern plot” to extend slavery plot” promises to work for slavery’s extinction slavery’ casts slavery as a moral problem defends white supremacy in response to Douglas § Douglas accuses Lincoln of favoring equality § Lincoln loses election, gains national reputation The South's Crisis of Fear § October, 1859--John Brown raids Harper’s 1859--John Harper’ Ferry § Brown executed, North mourns as martyr § December, 1859--Republican candidate 1859--Republican for Speaker denounced as seditious “Helperite” Helperite” § Republicans seen as radical abolitionists § Southerners convinced they must secede on election of Republican president The The Election of 1860: Democrats § Party splits § Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas § Southern Democrat John Breckenridge The The Election of 1860: Constitutional Union Party § Candidate John Bell § Promises compromise between North and South The Election of 1860: Republicans § Abraham Lincoln nominated § § home state of Illinois crucial to election seen as moderate § Platform to widen party ’s appeal party’ § § § high tariffs for industry free homesteads for small farmers government aid for internal improvements § Lincoln wins by carrying North Explaining Explaining the Crisis § Republicans a strict sectional party § Fundamental conflict of ideals § Southern ideals § § paternalism, generosity, prosperity slavery defended on the grounds of race § Northern ideals § § § inspired by evangelical Protestantism each person free and responsible slavery tyrannical and immoral ...
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