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Unformatted text preview: SECESSION SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 15 The Storm Gathers • Secession does not necessarily mean war • One last attempt to reconcile North & South • Federal response to secession debated The Deep South Secedes • December 20,1860--South Carolina 20,1860--South secedes • February 1861--Confederate States of 1861--Confederate America formed – included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Secession Secession The Deep South Secedes (2) • Government headed by moderates • Confederate constitution resembles U.S. • Aim to restore pre-Republican Party preUnion • Southerners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy The Failure of Compromise • Crittenden Plan: extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific • Lincoln rejects – – does not think it will end secession viewed as repudiation of Republican principles • Buchanan takes no action to stop secession • Some wish to “let the South depart in peace” peace” And And the War Came • North seeks action to preserve Union • April 13, 1861--Fort Sumter, S.C, falls 1861--Fort • April 15--Lincoln calls out Northern 15--Lincoln state militias to suppress Southern insurrection • April-May --Upper South secedes April-May--Upper • Border states --slave states remain in --slave Union • War defined as effort to preserve Union Adjusting to Total War • North must win by destroying will to resist • Total War--a test of societies, War--a economies, political systems as well as armies Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861 Prospects, Prospects, Plans, and Expectations • South adopts defensive strategy --North --North must fight in unfamiliar, hostile terrain • Lincoln adopts two-front strategy two– – – capture Confederate capital, Richmond, Va. seize control of the Mississippi River deploy navy to blockade Southern ports Overview of Civil War Strategy Mobilizing the Home Fronts • 1862--North & South begin conscription 1862--North • Northern mobilization – – finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money private industry supplies Union armies well • Confederate mobilization – – – government arsenals supply Confederate armies efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation transportation system inadequate Political Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure • Lincoln expands wartime powers – – – declares martial law imprisons 10,000 "subversives" without trial briefly closed down a few newspapers • Jefferson Davis – – – concerned mainly with military duties neglects civilian morale, economy lacks influence with state governments Early Campaigns and Battles • Northern achievements by 1862 – – – total naval supremacy Confederate troops cleared from West Virginia, Kentucky, much of Tennessee New Orleans captured • Confederate achievements by 1862 – – stall campaign for the Mississippi at Shiloh defend Richmond from capture Civil War, 1861- 1862 1861- The The Diplomatic Struggle • England – – belligerent rights extended to Confederacy conditions recognition of independence on proof that South can win independence • France--Confederacy not recognized France--Confederacy unless England does so first • "King Cotton" has little influence on foreign policy of other nations Fight Fight to the Finish • North adopts radical measures to win • 1863--war turns against South 1863--war • Southern resistance continues The Coming of Emancipation • September 22, 1862--Antietam prompts 1862--Antietam preliminary Emancipation Proclamation – surrender in 100 days or lose slaves • January 1, 1863--Proclamation put into 1863--Proclamation effect for areas still in rebellion • African Americans flee to Union lines • Confederacy loses thousands of laborers African African Americans and the War • 200,000 African American Union troops • Many others labor in Northern war effort • Lincoln pushes further for black rights – – – organizes governments in conquered Southern states that abolish slavery Maryland, Missouri abolish slavery January 31, 1865--13th Amendment 1865-- 13th passed The Tide Turns • May, 1863--war-weariness 1863--war– – – – New York riots against conscription Grant seems bogged down at Vicksburg Union defeated at Chancellorsville Democrats attack Lincoln • July, 1863 – – Lee loses Battle of Gettysburg Vicksburg falls, North holds the Mississippi Last Stages of the Conflict • March 9, 1864--Grant made supreme 1864--Grant commander of Union armies • Union invades the South on all fronts – – William Sherman marches through Georgia Grant lays siege to Richmond, Petersburg • September 2--Sherman takes Atlanta 2--Sherman • November 8--Lincoln reelected 8--Lincoln Civil Civil War, 1863- 1865 1863- Last Stages of the Conflict • April 9, 1865--Lee surrenders 1865--Lee • April 14--Lincoln assassinated 14--Lincoln • May 26--Final capitulation of 26--Final Confederacy Effects Effects of the War • 618,000 troops dead • Bereft women seek non-domestic roles non• Four million African Americans free, not equal • Industrial workers face wartime inflation Casualties Casualties of War Effects of the War (2) • Federal government predominant over states • Federal government takes activist role in the economy – higher tariffs, free land, national banking system An An Organizational Revolution • Modern bureaucratic state emerges • Individualism gives way to organized, cooperative activity • Catalyst for transformation of American society in the late nineteenth century ...
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