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Unformatted text preview: 1 Civil Rights Civil Rights ยก Equality is at the heart of Civil Rights ยก What the government must do to ensure equal protection under the law AND What the government must do to ensure freedom from discrimination ยก The story of civil rights is a story of the struggle of various groups to be free from discriminatory treatment ยก What should be the govtโs responsibility when equal protection under the law is not enough to ensure truly equal opportunities for Americans? ยก Refers to government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on categories such as: race, sex, national origin, age, religion or sexual orientation Civil Rights for African Americans and other Minorities ยก In apportioning congressional representation based on population, the constitution refers to free persons and โother personsโ (or slaves) ยก For purposes of representation, a slave was equal to 3/5 of a free person in terms of economic production and taxation ยก 1820 Missouri Compromise - an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories such as Missouri. Maine carved out Massachusetts to balance. 36 th parallel. Repealed in 1854. ยก Supreme Court confirms constitutionality of slavery in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) They were not citizens, so they were not entitled to any protection under the law, but they were property. ยข Uncle Tomโs Cabin ยข Start of Civil War 2 Civil War Amendments ยก Thirteenth Amendment (1865) โ Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in the United States ยก Fourteenth Amendment (1868) โ All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens ยข States cannot abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens ยข All persons (whether or not they are citizens) are entitled to due process under the law ยข All persons are entitled to equal protection under the law ยก Fifteenth Amendment (1870) โ The right to vote shall not be denied because of race, color or previous condition of servitude (black males only) Key Points of Early Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 ยก The First Civil Rights Act of 1866 ยข Extended citizenship to anyone born in the United States ยข Gave African Americans full equality before the law ยข Authorized the president to enforce the act through use of force ยก The Enforcement Act of 1870 ยข Set out specific penalties for interfering with the right to vote ยก The Anti-Ku Klux Klan Act (1872) ยข Made it a federal crime to deprive an individual of his or her rights ยก The Second Civil Rights Act (1875) ยข Everyone is entitled to equal enjoyment of public accommodations and places of public amusement ยข Imposed penalties for violators Civil Rights were nullified (rendered void) through ยก The Civil Rights Cases (1883) ยข The Supreme Court rules that the 14th Amendment only prevents official discriminatory acts by states , not by private individuals...
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course GOVT 2302 taught by Professor Mackharvey during the Fall '11 term at Collins.
- Fall '11