Civil Rights - Civil Rights Civil Rights Equality is at the...

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1 Civil Rights Civil Rights Equality is at the heart of Civil Rights What the government must do to ensure equal protection under the law AND What the government must do to ensure freedom from discrimination The story of civil rights is a story of the struggle of various groups to be free from discriminatory treatment What should be the govt’s responsibility when equal protection under the law is not enough to ensure truly equal opportunities for Americans? Refers to government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on categories such as: race, sex, national origin, age, religion or sexual orientation Civil Rights for African Americans and other Minorities In apportioning congressional representation based on population, the constitution refers to free persons and “other persons” (or slaves) For purposes of representation, a slave was equal to 3/5 of a free person in terms of economic production and taxation 1820 Missouri Compromise - an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories such as Missouri. Maine carved out Massachusetts to balance. 36 th parallel. Repealed in 1854. Supreme Court confirms constitutionality of slavery in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) They were not citizens, so they were not entitled to any protection under the law, but they were property. Uncle Tom’s Cabin Start of Civil War
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2 Civil War Amendments Thirteenth Amendment (1865) – Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in the United States Fourteenth Amendment (1868) – All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens States cannot abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens All persons (whether or not they are citizens) are entitled to due process under the law All persons are entitled to equal protection under the law Fifteenth Amendment (1870) – The right to vote shall not be denied because of race, color or previous condition of servitude (black males only) Key Points of Early Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 The First Civil Rights Act of 1866 Extended citizenship to anyone born in the United States Gave African Americans full equality before the law Authorized the president to enforce the act through use of force The Enforcement Act of 1870 Set out specific penalties for interfering with the right to vote The Anti-Ku Klux Klan Act (1872) Made it a federal crime to deprive an individual of his or her rights The Second Civil Rights Act (1875) Everyone is entitled to equal enjoyment of public accommodations and places of public amusement Imposed penalties for violators Civil Rights were nullified (rendered void) through The Civil Rights Cases (1883) The Supreme Court rules that the 14th Amendment only prevents official discriminatory acts by states , not by private individuals Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
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