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The Federal Bureaucracy

The Federal Bureaucracy - The Federal Bureaucracy...

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1 The Federal Bureaucracy Bureaucracy z A large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions (”Fourth branch of Govt.”). Simply put, Bureaucracy is a form of organization. z Private bureaucracies exist within organizations like corporations. They have a single set of leaders. z Religious bodies can also be bureaucracies z Excluding the military, there are 2.8 million govt. employees. In addition, there are subcontractors and consultants. If all govt. employees are counted then it is more than 15 percent of all civilian employment. The cost of the bureaucracy is about 40 percent of the U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) z Public bureaucracies exist within organizations like governments z Typically have multiple sets of leaders (Congress, President, etc.) z Serve citizen instead of stockholders Characteristics of Bureaucracy z Specialization z Division of labor z Hierarchy z Standard operating procedures z Clear lines of authority & communication z Merit system of employment and promotion z Secrecy
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2 Goal of Bureaucracy z Goal of bureaucracy is EFFICIENCY. z Bureaucrats carry out the policy made by the people’s elected representatives. z However, bureaucrats often make or influence the making of policy. Functions of Bureaucracy z Congress make the laws, the Executive Branch enforces/implements the laws z Rulemaking z Quasi-legislation z More detailed rules on how to carry out policy Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy z There are four types of bureaucratic structures: z Cabinet Departments: Line organizations answerable only to the president. Created by Congress. They consist of top political appointees and then regular employees who may resist change z Independent Executive Agencies: They are not in a department, but answerable to the president who appoints their chiefs. z Independent Regulatory Agencies: Responsible for a specific type of public policy. They make and implement rules and regs. to protect the public interest. Independent of all branches of govt., but they combine some aspects of all branches. They were created for technical reasons that Congress could not perform. Appointed by the president but do not report to the president.
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