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Executive Branch - By Loren Miller By THE PRESIDENCY THE...

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Unformatted text preview: By Loren Miller By THE PRESIDENCY THE “No man will ever bring out of the No Presidency the reputation which carries him into it. To myself, personally, it brings nothing but increasing drudgery and daily loss of friends.” loss Thomas Jefferson THE PRESIDENCY THE “As to the presidency, the two As happiest days of my life were those of my entrance upon the office and my surrender of it.” office Martin Van Buren THE PRESIDENCY THE “All the president is, is a glorified All public relations man who spends his time flattering, kissing, and kicking people to get them to do what they are supposed to do anyway.” anyway.” Harry Truman EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY EVOLUTION Chief Clerk: 1789-1836 • Presidents perform administrative duties Presidents that Congress requests. that • • Government is best that governs the least. Presidents focused their attention on foreign Presidents affairs while Congress focused on domestic matters. matters. Madison found himself unable to fund the War of Madison 1812 and unable to raise an army. 1812 • The Monroe Doctrine • Congress forged key compromises on slavery and Congress paid of most of the national debt. paid • • Andrew Jackson, an outsider, grabs the reins of Andrew government and remakes the presidency. government Forced out Cabinet members who disagreed with Forced him. him. • Introduced the spoils system. • EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY EVOLUTION Weakened Presidency: 1837-1900 • Andrew Jackson’s popularity and energetic Andrew personality raised the profile of the office. However, those who followed Jackson (with some exceptions) reverted back to “chief clerk.” Exceptions include: clerk.” • • • James Polk: westward expansion; used his James power as commander in chief to instigate war with Mexico; acquired California, Arizona and Oregon Territory. Oregon Abraham Lincoln: blockaded southern ports; Abraham suspended the writ of habeas corpus; spent habeas spent money without Congressional approval; raised an army without Congressional approval. Abraham Lincoln reinterpreted Article II into a Abraham source of executive authority during EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY EVOLUTION The Modern Presidency: 1901-1945 • As the United States industrialized and As became a significant player in an interconnected world, the power of the presidency grew accordingly. presidency • Theodore Roosevelt used the office as a “bully Theodore pulpit.” He wanted to be “the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral.” wedding • Bold assertions of presidential power: The Bold Stewardship Theory Stewardship • • • • • Breaks up corporate monopolies Initiates a Panamanian revolution Wins a Nobel Peace Prize (mediating Japan/Russia) Wins settlement settlement Sends fleet around the world First president to travel to a foreign country EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY EVOLUTION The Modern Presidency: 1901-1945 • Woodrow Wilson achieved some significant Woodrow successes and suffered some great failures. successes Achieved industrial reforms • Led the United States into World War I • Led efforts to create a League of Nations • • Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal • • • • • • Permanent bureaucracies Social Security and unemployment insurance Use of the media to communicate directly with the public— fireside chats Lend-Lease Program prior to U.S. involvement in WWII Lend-Lease (without consent of Congress) (without Gave Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for rights to build Gave military based on British territory (without consent of Congress) Congress) The national government became the focus of power EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY EVOLUTION Imperial Presidency Under Attack: 1945-1980 • By the end of World War II, the presidency had By become a very powerful office and emphasis on the “cold war” in the 1950s and 1960s added to the president’s power. president’s • • • The Truman Doctrine Sending troops to Vietnam Watergate, Richard Nixon’s resignation and Jimmy Watergate, Carter’s inability to resolve the Iranian hostage situation frustrated the public and the presidency came under increasing attacks from Congress. came LEGAL REQUIREMENTS LEGAL FOR PRESIDENT • at least 35 years of age • have lived in the United States 14 have years years • be a natural born citizen of the be United States United PRESIDENTIAL TRIVIA PRESIDENTIAL • • • • • • • Only divorced president: Reagan Only bachelor president: Buchanan Shortest Term: Harrison (1 month) Largest President: Taft (350 pounds) Smallest President: Madison (95 pounds) pounds) Youngest President: Roosevelt (42) Oldest President: Reagan (77) INFORMAL CRITERIA INFORMAL FOR PRESIDENT • Political Experience • 1868-1956 gubernatorial experience 1868-1956 preferred preferred 1960-1972 senatorial experience 1960-1972 preferred preferred 1972 to the present ??????? • Vice-president?? Vice-president?? • • INFORMAL CRITERIA INFORMAL FOR PRESIDENT • • Vice-president?? Vice-president?? VPs who became President by election: VPs 1800s – Adams, Jefferson, Van Buren 1800s 1900s – T. Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman, Nixon, Johnson, Bush Military Hero?? THE VICE PRESIDENCY THE VICE PRESIDENCY If Washington is called “Mr. President,” then If you need to call me “Your superfluous excellency.” excellency.” John Adams, our first Vice President “[The Vice Presidency] is the most [The insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” conceived.” John Adams THE VICE PRESIDENCY THE VICE PRESIDENCY “The Vice Presidency isn’t worth a warm The bucket of piss.” bucket John Nance Garner, one of FDR’s Vice Presidents “I do not propose to be buried until I am do really dead.” really Daniel Webster, on not accepting the Vice Daniel Presidency Presidency THE VICE PRESIDENCY THE VICE PRESIDENCY “A little over a week ago, I took a rather unusual little step for a vice president . . . I said something.” step Spiro Agnew, Vice President under Richard Nixon Eisenhower/Nixon “Look at all the Vice Presidents in history. Where Look are they? They were about as useful as a cow’s fifth teat.” fifth Harry S Truman, one of FDR’s Vice Presidents THE VICE PRESIDENCY THE VICE PRESIDENCY s Recent vice presidents have been given greater access to the president and have been given more responsibilities than earlier vice presidents. – Al Gore and Dick Cheney – Would Joe Biden have accepted the vice presidency unless he was given access and responsibilities? INFORMAL CRITERIA INFORMAL FOR PRESIDENT • Executive Ability • • the ability to hire good people Ideology • middle of the road INFORMAL CRITERIA INFORMAL FOR PRESIDENT • Physical Stamina • Mental Stability • Knowledge of the Issues THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS 1. Defining Possible Candidates and Leading Contenders 2. The Primaries and Delegate Selection 3. The Convention THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS Defining Possible Candidates and Leading Defining Contenders Contenders “No one wants to back a loser” • • • • Key Money Raisers (“Fat Cats”) • Hollywood Influentials Media Commentary Party Influentials Interest Groups THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS The Primaries and Delegate Selection Primaries and Caucus • Importance of primaries: • In 1912 12 Democratic • In 1980 31 Democratic • In 2004 36 Democratic 13 Republican 35 Republican 43 Republican When States Select Delegates Delegates 2000 2004 2008 THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS The Primaries and Delegate Selection Primaries and Caucus • Until 1968 • delegates selected by party leaders • all states are important • party dominated • open conventions THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS The Primaries and Delegate Selection Primaries and Caucus • Since 1968 • candidate dominated • most delegates selected by primaries • early states are important • closed conventions THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS The Convention Purpose 2012: R: Tampa D: Charlotte • Role of the media Role • Cross-section of the American public? Cross-section • Likelihood of deadlock? • Post-convention “surge” Post-convention * THE NOMINATION PROCESS PROCESS Week of the year that the candidate won a majority of delegates THE ELECTION THE 80 A Majority of American Voters Decide How to Vote Before the Fall Campaign Begins. Many decide even before the primaries. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Before Primaries Before Labor Day 0 2 0 0 6 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 8 1 9 8 4 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 6 1 9 7 2 7 9 1 1 9 6 8 0 THE ELECTION THE Democratic voters supported (in %) Republican voters supported (in %) 2008 Election THE MONEY FACTOR THE 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 In Millions 2000 2004 2008 THE MONEY FACTOR (2008) THE In Millions THE ELECTION THE JibJab THE ELECTION THE The Electoral College Why?? How do we choose a president without political How parties (they were frowned upon), without national campaigns (the office seeks the person rather than the person seeks the office), and without upsetting the balance between the executive and legislative branches and the national and state governments? national THE ELECTION THE The Electoral College Why?? Have Congress choose the president: This would lead to hard feelings among members of Congress and This would lead to unsightly political bargaining would Have the state legislatures choose the president: This would lead to an erosion of federal authority as the president This would be too beholding to certain states would Have the president elected by direct popular vote: People would not be aware of a candidate who was not local and People would vote for their “favorite son” and no person would emerge with a popular majority. with Finally, the “Committee of Eleven” proposed an indirect election of Finally, the president through a College of Electors. the THE ELECTION THE The Electoral College The Electoral College was expected to be composed of “free The electors” who could vote for anyone. The person who came in first would become president and the runner-up would be vice-president. would If nobody had a majority of votes, then the election would go If into the House. Our Founding Fathers expected that almost all elections would be determined in the House of Representatives as they expected many candidates to receive electoral votes. receive This worked well until the formation of political parties. By This 1796, the electors were no longer “free electors” but had become “partisan electors.” become THE ELECTION THE The Electoral College Each state has the number of electors equal to the Each number of their members in the House and the Senate Senate H + S = # of Electors (Texas) 36 + 2 = 38 Electors (USA) 435 + 100 + 3 (DC) = 538 Electors A majority of 538 (270) is needed to win THE ELECTION THE The Electoral College • The objective is to obtain 270 electoral votes • Instead of 1 presidential election, we have 51 separate Instead presidential elections presidential • To win Texas’s electoral vote, the candidate must obtain To a plurality of popular votes in the state plurality • So where does a candidate campaign?? So • In 2004, 82% of party resources were spent in only 9 states. The Battleground States The 2008 New Hampshire Pennsylvania Virginia North Carolina Ohio Indiana Missouri New Mexico Colorado Nevada http://www.270towin.com How Presidents and Vice Presidents are Chosen Presidents Acetate P–2 POPULAR VOTE VS. POPULAR ELECTORAL VOTE Election Year President Winner’s Winner’s Electoral Vote Popular Vote 1956 Eisenhower 86.1 57.4 1960 Kennedy 58.0 49.7 1964 LB Johnson 90.3 61.6 1968 Nixon 55.9 43.4 1972 Nixon 96.7 60.7 1976 Carter 55.2 50.1 POPULAR VOTE VS. POPULAR ELECTORAL VOTE Election Year President Winner’s Winner’s Electoral Vote Popular Vote 1980 Reagan 90.9 50.7 1984 Reagan 97.4 59.8 1988 Bush 79.0 53.4 1992 Clinton 68.8 43.2 1996 Clinton 70.4 49.2 2000 GW Bush 50.1 49.8 POPULAR VOTE VS. POPULAR ELECTORAL VOTE Election Year President Winner’s Winner’s Electoral Vote Popular Vote 2004 GW Bush 53.2 51.2 2008 Obama 67.8 53.3 Robin Williams THE ELECTION THE The Electoral College The Electoral College has reversed the outcome The three times: three 1876 (Hayes v. Tilden), 1888 (Harrison v. 1876 Cleveland), 2000 (Bush v. Gore). Cleveland), The House of Representatives has decided two The elections: elections: 1800 (Jefferson v. Burr), 1824 (Adams v. Jackson 1800 v. Clay) v. In 18 of 55 presidential elections (Washington to In Obama), the winning candidate did not have a majority of popular votes. majority ELECTORAL COLLEGE REFORMS REFORMS • Direct Popular Vote • Proportional Voting • District Plan DISTRICT PLAN DISTRICT 3 Districts = 5 Electoral Votes R = 110 D = 95 R = 100 D = 85 R = 75 D = 110 Used in Maine and Nebraska THE JOB OF PRESIDENT THE Act as Commander in Chief Negotiate Treaties Receive Foreign Ambassadors Nominate Top Federal Officials Veto Bills Faithfully Administer Federal Laws Pardon Persons for Federal Offenses Address Congress and the Nation WHAT WE LOOK FOR WHAT What we Really Want THE BEST & WORST THE THE BEST THE WORST 1. Abraham Lincoln 1. James Buchanan 2. George Washington 2. Andrew Johnson 3. Franklin D. Roosevelt 3. Franklin Pierce 4. Theodore Roosevelt 4. William Henry Harrison 5. Harry Truman 5. Warren G. Harding 6. John F. Kennedy 6. Millard Fillmore 7. Thomas Jefferson 7. George W. Bush 8. Dwight D. Eisenhower 8. John Tyler 9. Woodrow Wilson 9. Herbert Hoover 10. Ronald Reagan 10. Rutherford Hayes 2009 GREAT PRESIDENTS ARE: GREAT • Blessed with a great crisis • Resolve the crisis in an innovative Resolve and creative way and • Leave a legacy CONCEPTS OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER PRESIDENTIAL • Narrow (Whig Model)-- presidential power is Narrow limited to the specific grants of power enumerated in the Constitution enumerated • • Pre-TR and Taft, Harding and Coolidge Broad (Stewardship Model) -- presidential Broad power is greater than what is enumerated in the Constitution the • the role of precedent PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER PRESIDENTIAL • What should we look for in a What president? president? James David Barber, Duke University • • Presidential Character is the “way a Presidential President orients himself toward life.” President Developed mainly during childhood • Self-esteem underlies character. Self-esteem • • The better people feel about themselves, the more likely they will be able to accept criticism, think rationally, and learn on the job. rationally, PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER PRESIDENTIAL • Based on two dimensions • 1. The amount of energy a person 1. puts into being president puts • active or passive Plays the roles of being president Plays aggressively aggressively • Rarely plays the roles of being Rarely president aggressively except during crisis crisis • • 2. How a person feels about being 2. president president • positive or negative Enjoys the job of being president; Enjoys flexible flexible • Unhappy in the job; anxious • PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER PRESIDENTIAL Active Positive ADAPTIVE: self­confident; Negative COMPULSIVE: power as a flexible; creates opportunities means to self­realization; for action; enjoys the exercise expends great energy on tasks of power, does not take himself but derives little joy; too seriously; optimistic; preoccupied with whether he is emphasizes the "rational failing or succeeding; low self­ mastery" of his environment; esteem; inclined to rigidity and power used as a means to pessimism; highly driven; achieve beneficial results. problem managing aggression. Passive COMPLIANT: seek to be loved; WITHDRAWN: responds to a easily manipulated; low self­ sense of duty; avoid power; low esteem is overcome by self­esteem compensated by ingratiating personality; reacts service to others; responds rather than initiates; rather than initiates; avoids superficially optimistic. conflict and uncertainty. emphasizes principles and procedures and an aversion to politicking. PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER PRESIDENTIAL Active-Positive Active-Negative Thomas Jefferson Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S Truman John F. Kennedy Bill Clinton George W. Bush (?) James K. Polk Abraham Lincoln Woodrow Wilson Herbert Hoover Lyndon B. Johnson Jimmy Carter Richard Nixon Passive-Positive Passive-Negative William Howard Taft Warren G. Harding Ronald Reagan George H.W. Bush Calvin Coolidge Dwight D. Eisenhower PRESIDENTIAL ROLES PRESIDENTIAL LEGISLATIVE LEADER♦ COMMANDER IN CHIEF♦ PARTY LEADER CHIEF DIPLOMAT♦ PUBLIC LEADER DOMESTIC PROVISIONS♦ Constitutional Powers LEGISLATIVE LEADER LEGISLATIVE • When does Congress follow the lead When of the president? of • • The Honeymoon Period International Crisis International LEGISLATIVE LEADER LEGISLATIVE • When does Congress follow the lead When of the president? of • • • The Honeymoon Period International Crisis International Luck • Commanding majority in Congress LEGISLATIVE LEADER LEGISLATIVE • When does Congress follow the When lead of the president? president • The Honeymoon Period • International Crisis International • Luck • Commanding majority in Congress Commanding • Skilled at manipulation (LBJ Skilled Treatment) Treatment) NOTHING LIKE A GOOD CRISIS ! NOTHING President Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Carter Bush Clinton Bush Event Korea Invaded Egypt Seizes Suez Canal Cuban Missile Crisis Bombing Halt of N. Vietnam Vietnam Peace Agreement Hostages Seized in Iran Iraq Invasion of Kuwait Invasion of Haiti September 11th Increase in Approval 9 7 13 14 16 28 20 5 38 Presidents Under Unified Government Government Presidents Under Divided Government Government Why Approval Ratings Why Go Down Over Time Expectations rise in campaigns and are dashed as time limits resources • Things get blamed, rightly or wrongly, on the president • Major negative events influence how people evaluate presidents • Press and media criticism accumulate over time • APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL 70 60 50 40 TRUMAN 30 20 10 0 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 EISENHOWER APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1961 JOHNSON KENNEDY 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL 90 80 70 60 50 NIXON 40 30 20 10 0 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1975 CARTER FORD 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL APPROVAL RATINGS APPROVAL PRESIDENTIAL AGENDA 20 New Requests to Congress 15 10 5 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 VETO POWER VETO Threat of a Veto • Line Item Veto • • Only on money bills • Supreme Court declared this Supreme unconstitutional in 1997 unconstitutional Do Presidents Veto Many Bills? PRESIDENTIAL VETOES AND OVERRIDES AND President Years in Office # of Vetoes # of Overrides Roosevelt 13 633 9 Truman 7 250 12 Eisenhower 8 181 2 Kennedy 3 21 0 Johnson 5 30 0 Nixon 6 43 5 PRESIDENTIAL VETOES AND OVERRIDES AND President Years in Office # of Vetoes # of Overrides Ford 3 66 12 Carter 4 31 2 Reagan 8 78 9 Bush 4 46 1 Clinton 8 37 2 PRESIDENTIAL VETOES AND OVERRIDES AND President Years in Office # of Vetoes # of Overrides Bush 8 8 1 Obama 2 0 0 Only one two term president did not veto a single bill . . . . Who was he? SIGNING STATEMENTS AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS EXECUTIVE • Signing Statement • When the president signs a bill into law, he may attach a When statement which indicates how the executive branch will interpret the law. will • • Sometimes this is contrary to congressional intent Executive Order • • Proclamation – ceremonial National Security Directive and Presidential Decision National Directive – deal with national security and defense matters matters Emancipation Proclamation • Integration of the Armed Forces • # of Significant Executive Orders Orders Louisiana Purchase Emancipation Proclamation Japanese Internment Desegregation of the Military Initiation of Affirmative Action Creation of the Peace Corp Creation of the EPA OPEN & CLOSED POLITICS OPEN Open • • • • State of the Union State Message Message Special Message Veto Power Press Conferences Closed • Personal Contact • Patronage • Pork Barrel Presidential power is the power to persuade PRESIDENTIAL SPEECHES PRESIDENTIAL Ob am a In Thousands PRESS CONFERENCES PRESS President Average Per Month John Kennedy (1961-63) 1.9 Lyndon Johnson (1963-69) Richard Nixon (1969-74) Gerald Ford (1974-77) Jimmy Carter (1977-81) Ronald Reagan (1981-89) George H. W.Bush (1989-93) Bill Clinton (1993-01) G.W. Bush (2001-08) Obama (2009-11) 2.2 Press Conference 0.6 1.3 1.2 0.5 3.0 2.0 2.2 1.9 COMMANDER IN CHIEF COMMANDER • Lincolnian View -- an expansive view of Lincolnian presidential authority presidential • Wilsonian-FDR View -- an executivelegislative partnership in war legislative leadership; statutes passed giving broad powers to the president broad PARTY LEADER PARTY • The President is deprived of the The advantage of a strong party organization that other heads of government enjoy • Therefore, Presidents are heavily Therefore, dependent on their own personal skills skills State Party Committees County Party Committees Municipal Party Committees Precinct Party Committees Private Clubs and Organizations CHIEF DIPLOMAT CHIEF • The Two Presidencies Thesis • Receive Ambassadors • Summit Conferences • Emergency Powers to be used during Emergency time of crisis (particularly in foreign affairs) affairs) DOMESTIC PROVISIONS DOMESTIC • . . . he shall take care that the laws be faithfully he executed . . . . (Art. II, sec. 3) executed • • In re Neagle Inherent Executive Powers • Presidents have assumed “inherent powers” (not specifically Presidents mentioned in the Constitution). mentioned Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana • Bush’s suspension of civil liberties of foreign nationals held in military Bush’s prison at Guantanamo Bay prison • • . . . and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. (Art. II, sec. 2) in PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS PRESIDENTIAL Per Year PUBLIC LEADER PUBLIC With public sentiment, nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed.” Abraham Lincoln • Presidents are news . . . Even when Presidents they do nothing they • Presidents keep their eyes on public Presidents opinion polls opinion • Trial Balloon IS IT TOO MUCH FOR ONE PERSON? FOR The responsibilities are awesome • There is no “vacation” • The remuneration is poor • • The president fulfills two roles that, The in other nations, are performed by two different people two • • Head of Government Chief of State ...
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