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wong-chapter03 - Chapter 3 Using Principles of Memory 1 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Using Principles of Memory 1 2 Chapter Objectives Use the mnemonic SAVE CRIB FOTO to identify the Twelve Principles of Memory. Twelve Explain how to use the Memory Principles of Explain Selectivity, Association, Visualization, and Selectivity, Elaboration. Elaboration. Explain how to use the Memory Principles of Explain Concentration, Recitation, Intention, and Big and Concentration, Little Pictures. Little Explain how to use the Memory Principles of Feedback, Organization, Time on Task, and Ongoing Feedback, Review. Review 3 The Twelve Principles of The Memory Memory 4 Mnemonics Mnemonics are memory tools that serve as Mnemonics bridges to recall information from LTM. bridges Mnemonics are retrieval cues that are used to Mnemonics trigger memory and recall. trigger Mnemonics are based on associations. Mnemonics must be memorized in their exact Mnemonics forms to be used effectively. forms Mnemonics must be translated into the original Mnemonics items they represent and rehearsed frequently. items Will Study Mnemonics more in-depth in Chapter 6 5 Enhancing Memory in the Learning Process Twelve Principles Twelve of Memory to Strengthen WM Strengthen MNEMONIC: MNEMONIC: SAVE SAVE CRIB FOTO FOTO Selectivity Association Visualization Elaboration Concentration Recitation Intention Big & Little Pictures Feedback Organization Time on Task Ongoing Review 6 Selectivity picking and choosing Identify and separate Identify main ideas and important details from a larger body of information. information. Decide what to attend Decide to and what to ignore. to Process only that Process which is important. which Use syllabus, textbook Use introduction, and lecture notes to identify main ideas, concepts, and recurring themes. recurring Use chapter features to Use identify significant details. identify Use examples to grasp Use concepts. concepts. Create study tools that Create show main ideas and details. details. 7 Association linking ideas Associations link Associations Form visual or Form together: together: auditory cues to link new and “old” new together two or information information more chunks of familiar items with new familiar related information. related items new concept with an Associations Associations experience experience involve: involve: – words new concept with the new setting in which your – verbal expressions learned it learned – pictures – familiar objects two items to form one two – numbers image or impression image – tunes two closely related two – personal experiences items to create a paired – familiar situations association association – mnemonics Items that can work as Items retrieval cues 8 Using Associations Discussion Points: Discussion Effective associations are vivid and easy to use. Associations serve as retrieval cues to use for memory Associations searches and tracking thought patterns. searches In paired associations, recall of one item triggers recall of In the second item. the In chained associations, each item helps you leap from In one thought to another as you search for information or an answer. an Using associations holds items longer in working Using memory. memory. LTM is organized around associations. 9 Visualization seeing in your mind Make pictures or Make movies in your mind. movies Use visual encoding. Visualizations are often Visualizations combined with reciting. combined Recall visual images Recall without looking at the physical form. physical Look up and to the left. Check your accuracy. Create strong visual Create impressions. impressions. Convert printed text to Convert a drawing. drawing. Create movies with Create actions and details. actions Attach meaning to your Attach impressions. impressions. Rehearse frequently. 10 10 Elaboration encode in new ways Think about and Think work with items in new ways. new Encode in new Encode ways. ways. Use elaborative Use rehearsal strategies. rehearsal Move beyond rote Move memory. memory. Change the original type Change of encoding used. of Use repetition but attach Use meaning and applications. applications. Use elaborative questions Use (why and how). (why Notice similarities and Notice differences in details. differences Weave concepts together Weave with related details. with 11 11 Concentration focus Block out distractions Block to stay focused on one specific item or task. specific Be an active learner. Active learning engages Active and activates working memory. memory. Avoid shifting into Avoid automatic pilot. automatic Study in a conducive Study learning environment. learning Ask yourself questions Ask about what you are studying. studying. Limit your activities to Limit one task at a time. one Use active learning Use strategies that engage you in the learning process. process. Use concentration Use strategies when you study. study. 12 12 Recitation explaining out loud Reciting: iinvolves explaining nvolves information out loud, in your own words, and in complete sentences without looking at printed text. text. encodes information encodes linguistically. linguistically. iis a form of self-quizzing s with feedback. with activates working activates memory. memory. personalizes learning. Use Look-Away Use Techniques. Techniques. Use reciting to rehearse Use and retrieve information. and Explain out loud to Explain yourself or to someone else. else. Create visual-verbal Create associations. Recite to prepare for tests. tests. Check accuracy and use Check the feedback from reciting. reciting. 13 13 Intention a purpose and a goal Create a purpose or a Create goal to act or perform in a specific way. specific Action-oriented and Action-oriented goal-oriented behavior activates working memory. memory. State your goal and State develop a plan of action. action. Learning goals vary for Learning two kinds of knowledge. knowledge. Declarative knowledge: –Factual information –Details, definitions, Details, concepts, and events events –Use elaborative rehearsal. Procedural knowledge: –Steps and processes to Steps solve problems or create products. products. –Use repetition to increase Use accuracy and speed. accuracy 14 14 Big and Little Pictures concepts and details Identify levels of Identify information. information. “Big pictures” are Big schemas, themes, concepts, and main ideas. ideas. “Little pictures” are Little details: facts, definitions, examples, or parts of a whole. or Big and Little Pictures Big reflects the structure or organization of LTM. organization Convert textbook and Convert lecture information into diagrams, visual mappings, or lists to show levels of information. levels Ask yourself questions Ask about levels of information. information. Use textbook marking Use and annotation to show levels of information. levels Use notetaking strategies Use to show levels of information. information. 15 15 Feedback self-quizzing Feedback: Involves self-quizzing. Checks the accuracy Checks and thoroughness of your learning. your Verifies that learning Verifies has or has not taken place. place. Should be used Should throughout the learning process. process. Recite often. Use Look-Away Use Techniques: mentally rehearse, visualize, or recite. recite. Write summaries from Write memory. memory. Rework math problems. Rework Quiz with a partner. Quiz Use self-quizzing. 16 16 Kinds of Feedback Positive Feedback: Shows accuracy and Shows thoroughness thoroughness Strengthens accurate Strengthens mental impression. mental Creates accurate Creates associations. associations. Motivates learners. Negative Feedback Shows faulty or Shows incomplete learning. incomplete Presents opportunity Presents to modify strategies. to Signals the need to Signals not move on to new material. material. Motivates learners to Motivates improve performance. improve 17 17 The Feedback Model YesPositive Learning Goal Action FeedbackSelf-Quizzing ComparisonCheck Accuracy Results NoNegative 18 18 Organization regroup or structure logically Examine levels of Examine information. information. Create meaningful, Create logical structure or arrangement of levels of information. information. Identify/understand Identify/understand organization of information used by authors, lecturers, and instructors. instructors. Working to regroup or Working reorganize information holds it longer in WM. holds Organize information into Organize meaningful chunks. meaningful Categorize information Categorize into lists. into Organize information Organize chronologically. chronologically. Present information in Present new ways: index cards, visual mappings, various kinds of notes, or mnemonics. mnemonics. Personalize the structure Personalize and the learning process. and 19 19 Time on Task spacing and use of time Allocate sufficient time Allocate and space contact time effectively to: effectively – – – Learn Rehearse/practice Review The amount of time spent The on a task affects the quality of learning. quality Avoid cramming and Avoid marathon studying. marathon Do not rush the learning Do process. process. Plan sufficient time to Plan study for each course (2:1 ratio). (2:1 Use fifty-minute study Use blocks to study one subject. subject. Use spaced practice. Use time management Use strategies. strategies. 20 20 Ongoing Review repeated practice Practice previously Practice learning information on an ongoing basis. on Ongoing review keeps Ongoing information from: information – – – – fading fading becoming inaccessible becoming becoming confused becoming difficult to becoming locate in LTM. locate Include time each Include week to review. week Conduct memory Conduct searches frequently. searches Use frequent Use repetition of steps and solutions for procedural knowledge. knowledge. Conduct a final review Conduct before you need to use information. use 21 21 Discussion: SAVE CRIB FOTO What does each letter of the mnemonic represent? How does each Principle support the functions of WM? What are the Twelve Principles of What S Memory? Memory? A C V R E I B F O T O 22 22 Discussion: Chapter 3 Discussion: Terminology Terminology Mnemonics Paired associations Elaborative rehearsal Elaborative questions Rote memory Active learning Automatic pilot Declarative Declarative knowledge knowledge Procedural Procedural knowledge knowledge The Feedback Model Positive feedback Negative feedback Self-quizzing Look-Away Look-Away Techniques Techniques 23 23 ...
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