Chapter_7

Chapter_7 - CHAPTER 7 Why does every society have deviance...

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CHAPTER 7
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Why does every society have deviance? How does who and what are defined as deviant reflect social inequality?
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DEVIANCE The recognized violation of cultural norms CRIME The violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law All deviant actions or attitudes have in common some element of difference that causes us to think of another person as an “outsider” Not all deviance involves action or choice
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Social Control SOCIAL CONTROL Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM A formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law Issues of Social organization How a society defines deviance Who is branded as deviant What people decide to do about deviance
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The Biological Context Early interest in criminality focused on biological causes Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) Theorized criminals stand out physically Sheldon, Glueck, and Glueck (1950) Suggested body structure might predict criminality A powerful build does not necessarily cause or predict criminality
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Genetic research today seek links between biology and crime Concluded that genetic factors (especially defective genes) together with environmental factors (especially early abuse) were strong predictors of adult crime and violence These factors together were a better predictor of crime than either one alone
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CRITICAL REVIEW Biological theories offer a limited explanation of crime Most actions defined as deviant are carried out by people who are physically normal Biological approach looks at the individual Offers no insight into how some kinds of behaviors come to be defined as deviant
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Personality Factors Psychological explanations of deviance focus on individual abnormality Some personality traits are inherited Most psychologists think personality is shaped by social experience Therefore, deviance is viewed as the result of “unsuccessful” socialization Reckless and Dinitz (1967) Research concluded that personality controls deviant impulses Containment theory
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CRITICAL REVIEW Personality patterns have some connection to deviance Most serious crimes are committed by people whose psychological profiles are normal Wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society
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Emile Durkheim Deviance is a necessary element of social organization
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Durkheim’s Basic Insight Deviance affirms cultural values and norms Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries Responding to deviance brings people together Deviance encourages social change
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An Illustration: The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Deviance is a necessary condition of “good” social living Deviance may be found in every society The kind of deviance generated depends on the moral issues to be clarified Society creates deviants to mark its changing moral boundaries
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Chapter_7 - CHAPTER 7 Why does every society have deviance...

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