Chapter_13

Chapter_13 - CHAPTER 13 What is family? How is religion...

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CHAPTER 13
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What is family? How is religion linked to social inequality? Why are both the family and religion changing in today’s world?
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Family A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children Kinship A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption Marriage A legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and childbearing
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Family: Global Variations Extended Family A family composed of parents and children as well as other kin Also called consanguine family Includes everyone with “shared blood” Nuclear Family A family composed of one or two parents and their children Also called conjugal family
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Marriage Patterns Endogamy Marriage between people of the same social category Limits marriage prospects Exogamy Marriage between people of different social categories Monogamy Marriage that unites two partners Permitted by law in higher-income nations
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Polygamy Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses Permitted by many lower-income nations Two forms: Polygyny (Most common) A form of marriage that unites one man and two or more women Polyandry Unites one woman and two or more men Extremely rare and is found in Tibet
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Historical preference for monogamy: Supporting several spouses is very expensive Number of men and women in most societies is roughly equal
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Residential Patterns Societies regulate mate selection and where a couple may live Preindustrial societies Newlyweds live with one set of parents for protection, support, and assistance Patrilocality Live with or near the husband’s family Matrilocality Live with or near the wife’s family Neolocality Married couple lives far apart from both sets of parents
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Patterns of Descent Descent Refers to the system by which members of a society trace kinship over generations Patrilineal Descent (most common) Traces kinship through males and property flows from fathers to sons Matrilineal Descent By which people define only the mother’s side as kin and property passes to daughters Found in horticultural societies
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Bilateral Decent Children recognize people on both father and mother’s side Property passes from parents to both sons and daughters
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Patterns of Authority In industrial societies Men are still typically head of households Most US parents give children their father’s last name Egalitarian Families Evolving more as share of women in the labor force goes up
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Structural-functional Analysis Social-conflict and Feminist Analysis Micro-level Analysis
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Structural-Functional Analysis Family sometimes called the “backbone of society” Socialization Regulation of sexual activity Incest Taboo
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Chapter_13 - CHAPTER 13 What is family? How is religion...

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