Chapter_15

Chapter_15 - CHAPTER 15 Why should we worry about the rapid...

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CHAPTER 15
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Why should we worry about the rapid rate of global population increase? What makes city and rural living different? How is the state of the natural environment a social issue?
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Demography: The Study of Population Demography The study of human population Fertility The incidence of childbearing in a country’s population Crude Birth Rate The number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
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Mortality The incidence of death in a country’s population Crude Death Rate The number of death’s in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population Infant Mortality Rate The number of deaths among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year Life Expectancy The average life span of a country’s population
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Migration The movement of people into and out of a specified territory Immigration In-migration rate Number of people entering an area for every 1,000 people in the population Emigration Out-migration rate The number of people leaving for every 1,000 people Both types usually happen at once Push-Pull factors
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Population Growth Affected by fertility, mortality, and migration Population growth of US and other high- income nations is well-below world average Highest growth region is Africa Troubling because these countries can barely support existing populations
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Population Composition Sex Ratio The number of males for every 100 females in a nation’s population Age-sex Pyramid A graphic representation of the age and sex of a population Lower-income nations are wide at the bottom
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History and Theory of Population Growth Malthusian Theory Rapid population increase would lead to social chaos Geometric Progression of population Doubling of population (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc.) Arithmetic Progression of food production Limited farmland (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.) Reproduction beyond what the planet could feed Birth control and sex abstention may change prediction
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CRITICAL REVIEW Prediction flawed Birth rate began to drop with industrialization Underestimated human ingenuity Ignored the role of social inequality in world abundance and famine Lesson: Habitable land, clean water, fresh air are limited resources
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Demographic Transition Theory A thesis that links population patterns to a society’s level of technological development Stage 1 – Pre-industrial Agrarian societies High birth rate; High death rate Stage 2 – Industrialization Death rate falls; Birth rates remain high Stage 3 – Mature Industrial Economy Birth rate drops; Death rate drops Stage 4 – Postindustrial Economy Demographic transition complete Low-birth rate; steady death rate Japan, Europe, and US
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CRITICAL REVIEW Linked to Modernization Theory Optimism that poor countries will solve their
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Chapter_15 - CHAPTER 15 Why should we worry about the rapid...

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