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Chapter_16 - CHAPTER 16 Why do societies change How do...

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CHAPTER 16
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Why do societies change? How do social movements both encourage and resist social change? What do sociologists say is good and bad about today’s society?
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What is Social Change? SOCIAL CHANGE The transformation of culture and social institutions over time Four major characteristics Social change happens all the time Cultural lag Material culture (things) changes faster than nonmaterial culture (ideas and attitudes) Social change is sometimes intentional but often unplanned Social change is controversial Some changes matter more than others
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Causes of Social Change Culture and Change Three important sources of cultural change Invention produces new objects, ideas, and social patterns Discovery occurs when people take notice of existing elements of the world Diffusion creates change as products, people, and information spread from one society to another Material things change more quickly than cultural ideas
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Conflict and Change Inequality and conflict within a society also produce change Marx correctly foresaw that social conflict arising from inequality would force changes in every society Ideas and Change Weber acknowledged that conflict could bring about change Traced roots of most social changes to ideas Revealed how religious beliefs of Protestants set the stage for spread of industrial capitalism
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Demographic Change Population patterns also play a part in social change Migration within and between societies promotes change Social Movements and Change Social Movement An organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
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Types of Social Movements Alternative Social Movements The least threatening to the status quo because they seek limited change Redemptive Social Movements Target specific individuals and seek more radical change Reformative Social Movements Aim for limited change but target everyone Revolutionary Social Movements Most extreme Working for major transformation of an entire society
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Claims Making The process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue For a social movement to form, some issue has to be defined as a problem that demands public attention
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Explaining Social Movements Deprivation Theory Social movements arise among people who feel deprived of something Relative Deprivation A perceived disadvantage arising from some specific comparison Mass-Society Theory Social movements attract socially isolated people who join a movement in order to gain a sense of identity and purpose
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