Chapter 2 Chemistry

Chapter 2 Chemistry - Chapter2 Chapter2 Overview:...

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Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life
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Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life
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Overview: A Chemical Connection to Biology Biology is a multidisciplinary science Living organisms are subject to basic laws of  physics and chemistry
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Concept 2.1: Matter consists of chemical  elements in pure form and in combinations  called compounds Organisms are composed of  matter Matter is anything that takes up space and has  mass Matter is made up of elements
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Elements and Compounds An  element  is a substance that cannot be broken down to other  substances by chemical reactions C, N, Na compound  is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed  ratio NaCl, H2O A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements
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Essential Elements of Life About 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up  96% of living matter Know valence, atomic number etc for these four Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium,  phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur Trace elements  are those required by an organism  in minute quantities
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Concept 2.2: An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Each element consists of unique  atoms An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains  the properties of an element
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Subatomic Particles Atoms are composed of  subatomic particles Relevant subatomic particles include: Neutrons  (no electrical charge) Protons  (positive charge) Electrons  (negative charge)
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Neutrons and protons form the  atomic nucleus Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus Neutron mass and proton mass are almost identical and  are measured in  daltons
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Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atoms of the various elements differ in number of  subatomic particles An element’s  atomic number  is the number of protons  in its nucleus An element’s  mass number  is the sum of protons plus  neutrons in the nucleus  Atomic mass , the atom’s total mass, can be  approximated by the mass number
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Atomic Number and Atomic Mass The mass number is written as a  superscript  to the left  of an element’s symbol The atomic number is written as a  subscript  to the left of  an element’s symbol 2010Ne
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Isotopes All atoms of an element have the same number of  protons but may differ in number of neutrons Isotopes  are two atoms of an element that differ in  number of neutrons C12, C13, C14 Radioactive isotopes  decay spontaneously, giving off  particles and energy Some applications of radioactive isotopes in biological 
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Chapter 2 Chemistry - Chapter2 Chapter2 Overview:...

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