Chapter 1 The Human Body Dr. Ford

Chapter 1 The Human Body Dr. Ford - Chapter 1 The Human...

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Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Angela Peterson-Ford, PhD BIOL 2401 [email protected]
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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Gross or macroscopic Microscopic Developmental Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery
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Gross Anatomy Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg) Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
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Microscopic Anatomy Cytology – study of the cell Histology – study of tissues
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Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes throughout life Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth
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Specialized Branches of Anatomy Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by X ray Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
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Physiology Considers the operation of specific organ systems Renal – kidney function Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
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Physiology Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains electrical currents, blood pressure, and the way muscle uses bone for movement
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Principle of Complementarity Function always reflects structure What a structure can do depends on its specific form Analyzing a biological structure gives us clues about what it does and how it works. Conversely, knowing the function of something provides insight into its construction .
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Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organismal – made up of the organ
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Chapter 1 The Human Body Dr. Ford - Chapter 1 The Human...

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