Chapter 12 CNS part 3

Chapter 12 CNS part 3 - Chapter 12 Central Nervous System...

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Chapter 12 Central Nervous System Part 3 Angela Peterson-Ford, PhD [email protected]
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Functional Brain System Networks of neurons working together and spanning wide areas of the brain The two systems are: Limbic system Reticular formation
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Limbic System Structures located on the medial aspects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon Includes the rhinencephalon, amygdala, hypothalamus, and anterior nucleus of the thalamus Parts especially important in emotions: Amygdala – deals with anger, danger, and fear responses Cingulate gyrus – plays a role in expressing emotions via gestures, and resolves mental conflict Puts emotional responses to odors – e.g., skunks smell bad
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Limbic System Figure 12.18
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Limbic System: Emotion and Cognition The limbic system interacts with the prefrontal lobes, therefore: One can react emotionally to conscious understandings One is consciously aware of emotion in one’s life Hippocampal structures – convert new information into long-term memories
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Reticular Formation Composed of three broad columns along the length of the brain stem Raphe nuclei Medial (large cell) group Lateral (small cell) group Has far-flung axonal connections with hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebellum, and spinal cord
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Reticular Formation Figure 12.19
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Reticular Formation: RAS and Motor Function RAS – reticular activating system Sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert Filters out repetitive and weak stimuli Motor function Helps control coarse motor movements Autonomic centers regulate visceral motor functions – e.g., vasomotor, cardiac, and respiratory centers
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Brain Waves Normal brain function involves continuous electrical activity An electroencephalogram (EEG) records this activity Patterns of neuronal electrical activity recorded are called brain waves Each person’s brain waves are unique Continuous train of peaks and troughs Wave frequency is expressed in Hertz (Hz)
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Types of Brain Waves Alpha waves – regular and rhythmic, low- amplitude, slow, synchronous waves indicating an “idling” brain Beta waves – rhythmic, more irregular waves occurring during the awake and mentally alert state Theta waves – more irregular than alpha waves; common in children but abnormal in adults Delta waves – high-amplitude waves seen in deep sleep and when reticular activating system is damped
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Types of Brain Waves Figure 12.20b
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Brain Waves: State of the Brain Brain waves change with age, sensory stimuli, brain disease, and the chemical state of the body EEGs can be used to diagnose and localize brain lesions, tumors, infarcts, infections, abscesses, and epileptic lesions A flat EEG (no electrical activity) is clinical evidence of death
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Epilepsy A victim of epilepsy may lose consciousness, fall stiffly, and have uncontrollable jerking, characteristic of epileptic seizure Epilepsy is not associated with, nor does it cause, intellectual impairments Epilepsy occurs in 1% of the population
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