Chapter 22 Respiratory System Part 2

Chapter 22 Respiratory System Part 2 - Chapter 22...

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Angela Peterson-Ford, PhD Part 2 [email protected] Chapter 22 Respiratory System
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The Respiratory System Part 2 22
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Respiratory Volumes Tidal volume (TV) – air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath (approximately 500 ml) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) – air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume (2100–3200 ml) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) – air that can be evacuated from the lungs after a tidal expiration (1000–1200 ml) Residual volume (RV) – air left in the lungs after strenuous expiration (1200 ml)
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Respiratory Capacities Inspiratory capacity (IC) – total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration (IRV + TV) Functional residual capacity (FRC) – amount of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration (RV + ERV) Vital capacity (VC) – the total amount of exchangeable air (TV + IRV + ERV) Total lung capacity (TLC) – sum of all lung volumes (approximately 6000 ml in males)
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Dead Space Anatomical dead space – volume of the conducting respiratory passages (150 ml) Alveolar dead space – alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction Total dead space – sum of alveolar and anatomical dead spaces
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Pulmonary Function Tests Spirometer – an instrument consisting of a hollow bell inverted over water, used to evaluate respiratory function Spirometry can distinguish between: Obstructive pulmonary disease – increased airway resistance Restrictive disorders – reduction in total lung capacity from structural or functional lung changes
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Pulmonary Function Tests Total ventilation – total amount of gas flow into or out of the respiratory tract in one minute Forced vital capacity (FVC) – gas forcibly expelled after taking a deep breath Forced expiratory volume (FEV) – the amount of gas expelled during specific time intervals of the FVC
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Pulmonary Function Tests Increases in TLC, FRC, and RV may occur as a result of obstructive disease Reduction in VC, TLC, FRC, and RV result from restrictive disease
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Alveolar Ventilation Alveolar ventilation rate (AVR) – measures the flow of fresh gases into and out of the alveoli during a particular time Slow, deep breathing increases AVR and rapid, shallow breathing decreases AVR AVR = frequency X (TV – dead space) (ml/min) (breaths/min) (ml/breath)
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Nonrespiratory Air Movements Most result from reflex action Examples include: coughing, sneezing, crying, laughing, hiccupping, and yawning
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Basic Properties of Gases: Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture The partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture
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Basic Properties of Gases: Henry’s Law When a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
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Chapter 22 Respiratory System Part 2 - Chapter 22...

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