Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Part 1

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Part 1 - The Respiratory...

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Dr. Angela Peterson-Ford, PhD Part 1 apetersonford@collin.edu The Respiratory System
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The Respiratory System Part 1 22
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Respiratory System Consists of the respiratory and conducting zones Respiratory zone Site of gas exchange Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
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Respiratory System Conducting zone Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange Includes all other respiratory structures (e.g., nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea) Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation
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Respiratory System Figure 22.1
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Major Functions of the Respiratory System To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide Respiration – four distinct processes must happen Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
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Major Functions of the Respiratory System Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
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Function of the Nose The only externally visible part of the respiratory system that functions by: Providing an airway for respiration Moistening and warming the entering air Filtering inspired air and cleaning it of foreign matter Serving as a resonating chamber for speech Housing the olfactory receptors
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Structure of the Nose The nose is divided into two regions The external nose, including the root, bridge, dorsum nasi, and apex The internal nasal cavity Philtrum – a shallow vertical groove inferior to the apex The external nares (nostrils) are bounded laterally by the alae
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Structure of the Nose Figure 22.2a
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Structure of the Nose Figure 22.2b
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Nasal Cavity Lies in and posterior to the external nose Is divided by a midline nasal septum Opens posteriorly into the nasal pharynx via internal nares The ethmoid and sphenoid bones form the roof The floor is formed by the hard and soft palates
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Nasal Cavity Vestibule – nasal cavity superior to the nares Vibrissae – hairs that filter coarse particles from inspired air Olfactory mucosa Lines the superior nasal cavity Contains smell receptors
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Nasal Cavity Respiratory mucosa Lines the balance of the nasal cavity Glands secrete mucus containing lysozyme and defensins to help destroy bacteria
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Nasal Cavity Figure 22.3b
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Nasal Cavity Inspired air is: Humidified by the high water content in the nasal cavity Warmed by rich plexuses of capillaries Ciliated mucosal cells remove contaminated mucus
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Nasal Cavity Superior, medial, and inferior conchae: Protrude medially from the lateral walls Increase mucosal area Enhance air turbulence and help filter air Sensitive mucosa triggers sneezing when stimulated by irritating particles
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Functions of the Nasal Mucosa and Conchae During inhalation the conchae and nasal
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course BIOL 2402 taught by Professor Elainefanin during the Spring '11 term at Collins.

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Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Part 1 - The Respiratory...

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