Biological.Aging

Biological.Aging - Physical Development and Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: Physical Development and Biological Aging § Body Growth and Change § The Brain § Patterns of Growth ¡ Cephalocaudal pattern: ¡ Growth occurs first at the top—the head— and gradually proceeds from top to bottom. ¡ Proximodistal pattern: ¡ Growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities Body Growth and Change Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood Body Growth and Change • Slower, consistent growth • Muscle mass and strength increase • Boys stronger, body proportions change Middle and Late Childhood • Growth slows, patterns vary individually • Girls slightly smaller and lighter • Girls gain fat, boys gain muscle Early Childhood • Average 20 inches, 7 ½ lbs at birth • Triple weight by 1 year • ½ adult height, 20% adult weight by age 2 Infancy Changes in Proportions of the Human Body During Growth Body Growth and Change Puberty ¡ Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place in early adolescence.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ¡ Two phases: ¡ Adrenarche-changes in adrenal glands ¡ Gonardarche • Menarche • Spermarche Body Growth and Change Hormone Levels by Sex and Pubertal Stage for Testosterone and Estadiol Body Growth and Change Pubertal Growth Spurt Body Growth and Change Normal Range and Average Development of Sexual Characteristics in Males and Females Secular Trends in Puberty Body Growth and Change ¡ Onset of puberty beginning earlier: ¡ Norway — menarche at 17 in 1840s, now 13 ¡ U.S. — menarche at 15 in 1840s, now 12½ • White girls at average age of 10 • African American girls at average age 8 to 9 Body Image in Puberty ¡ Adolescents become preoccupied by bodies: ¡ Overall, girls less satisfied, boys more satisfied ¡ Throughout puberty: • Girls’ dissatisfaction increases- • body fat increases • Boys’ satisfaction increases- • muscle mass increases Body Growth and Change Body Image in Puberty ¡ Early and Late Maturation: ¡ Early boys more positive, better peer relations....
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PSYCH 2314 taught by Professor Michaelrose during the Spring '11 term at Collins.

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Biological.Aging - Physical Development and Biological...

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