Emotion.Gender and Sexuality

Emotion.Gender and Sexuality - GenderandSexuality

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Gender and Sexuality §   Biological, Social, and Cognitive  Influences on Gender  §   Gender Comparisons and  Classification
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Gender and Sex   Gender - C haracteristics of being female or male. Gender role :   set of expectations prescribing how  females and males should act, feel, and think. Gender typing :   process by which children acquire  thoughts, behaviors, and feelings culturally appropriate  for their gender. Sex-  Designates the biological aspects of being female or  male. Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender
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Biological Influences Chromosomes   — 23rd pair with X  and Y   Hormones: Estrogens Influences development of female physical sex  characteristics and helps regulate menstrual cycle Androgens  Testosterone promotes development of male genitals  and secondary sex characteristics Examples of conditions from unusual levels of sex  hormones early in development: Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender
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Evolutionary Psychology  View of Gender Differing roles  in reproduction placed different pressures on  males and females Key gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual  behaviors Males — competition, violence, risk-taking Females — parenting effort, selection of successful mate Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender
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Social Influences Differences due to social experiences:  Social role theory gender differences result from contrasting  roles of men and women Psychoanalytic theory of gender claims child identifies with  same-sex parent by age 5 or 6 Many disagree, claiming gender learned much earlier (even in  absence of same-sex parent) Social cognitive theory of gender:   gender development results  from observation and imitation, use of rewards and punishments  Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender
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Cognitive Influences Cognitive development theory of gender:   Children’s gender typing occurs after  they think of  themselves as boys and girls; gender constancy  must be  achieved first. Once consistently conceived as male or female, children  prefer activities, objects, and attitudes consistent with this  label. Gender schema theory:   Gender typing emerges gradually in gender schemas of  what is culturally gender-appropriate and inappropriate Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender
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Gender Stereotyping  Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs  about females and males: Traditional masculinity and femininity Males – instrumental traits Females - expressive traits Roles and traits – unequal social status, power Stereotyping varies with culture  Stereotyping of occupations  Gender Comparisons and Classification
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Young Children’s Judgments about Competency in Stereotyped Occupations Gender Comparisons and Classification
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Emotion.Gender and Sexuality - GenderandSexuality

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