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L13_WavesAndRaysII-page2 - calculated as a function of the...

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Applied Geophysics – Waves and rays - II Reflection and transmission Seismic rays obey Snell’s Law (just like in optics) The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection, and the angle of transmission is related to the angle of incidence through the velocity ratio. But a conversion from P to S or vice versa can also occur. Still, the angles are determined by the velocity ratios. p V r V R V r V R V i S S S S P P P P P P = = = = = 2 1 2 1 1 sin sin sin sin sin where p is the ray parameter and is constant along each ray. Applied Geophysics – Waves and rays - II Amplitudes reflected and transmitted The amplitude of the reflected, transmitted and converted phases can be
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Unformatted text preview: calculated as a function of the incidence angle using Zoeppritz’s equations . Simple case: Normal incidence Reflection coefficient Transmission coefficient 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 V V V V A A R i R C ρ + − = = 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 V V V R A A T C i T C + = − = = These coefficients are determined by from the product of velocity and density – the impedance of the material. R C usually small – typically 1% of energy is reflected. Reflection and transmission coefficients for a specific impedance contrast...
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