health psychology- stress.pdf - Health Psychology Stress...

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Health PsychologyStress
IntroductionHealth psychology: scientific study of psychological processes related to health and health care (Friedman and Adler 2007)Focus on prevention It is now acknowledged that many health problems are directly related to lifestyle choicesGoal: Help people stay healthy, and to start and adhere to treatments
Different Factors Causing IllnessBiopsychosocial model of health and illness:Biological factorsGenetics, immune system, age, sex, viruses, infections, lesionsBehaviorsSmoking, drinking, sex life, eating habitsSociocultural factorsPeer pressure, socio-economic status, ethnicity, expectationsPsychological factorsSense of control, self-efficacy, optimism, stress and coping
Stress & StressorsStress: negative emotional experience, accompanied by various physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changesStressors: Cause stressNoise, violence, pain, job, examsStress response: Physiological/psychological changesStress hormones, distressStress experience: Perception of experience and how we deal with itCopingNot always a conscious experience
StressorsHumans are the only species that can imagine stressors, and their body reacts as if it was realRobert Sapolsky <3Beliefs and expectations play a role in the intensity and character of people’s methods of coping with stressorsHomeostasis: balance between external environment and body’s normal physiological stateWhen your environment does not cause you stress
StressorsAcute stressors: appear suddenly, do not last long, call for immediate attentionPhysical injuries, attacksBody is alert and deals with stress, then returns to homeostasis Chronic stressors: last a long time, constant source of worryAbusive relationships, bullying, intense jobsDamages the body overtimeBody does not return to homeostasis because the stressor is always there
Work StressorsWork-related stress arises if there is a mismatch between the demands of a person and their ability to cope with those demandsi.e. not enough time, factors under their control, not enough support
StressorsEven pleasant changes can be stressfulMarriage, pregnancy, promotionsBecause they require the individual to adjust to a new situation (find homeostasis again)The Holmes-Rahe Scale (1967)Rate life events in terms of how long it would take to readjust/accommodate the stressorFindings:Evaluation of stressors is fairly constant across the USSmall correlation between high stress ratings and more illness and accidents
CopingCoping: efforts to deal with a threat in order to remove it or diminish its impactSarafino (1994): Stress arises when people percieve their own resources can not meet the demands of a situationThe individual’s own evaluation of the situation is what mattersImpacts the way the person confronts a stressful situation
Steptoe and Marmot (2003)Survey on the interaction of social, psychological, and physiological aspects of stress

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Term
Fall
Professor
Aarushi Jain
Tags
Stress, The Land, psychological stress, Transactional Model of Stress

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