PSCY1101 Notes - Chapter 3 Biological Foundations Monday 2:59 PM How genes transmit information Chromosomes structures within the cells body that

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Gene: the unit of heredity that determines a particular characteristic in an organism Chromosomes: structures within the cells body that are made up of genes Human genome project: a map of human genes that determines which gene causes what Dominant gene: a gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present Recessive gene: a gene that is expressed only when it is matches with a similar gene from the other parent Genotype: the genetic constitution determined at the moment of conception Phenotype: observable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental influences. Mutations: errors that occur during cell division and affect the genes Monozygotic twins: twins who result from one zygote splitting in two and therefore they share the same genes (identical) Dizygotic twins: twin siblings who result from two separately fertilized eggs (fraternal twins) Heritability: a statistical estimate of variation caused by differences in heredity, in a trait within a population How genes transmit information Sensory neurons: detect information from the physical world and pass it onto the brain Motor neurons: cause muscles to contract or relax causing movement Interneurons: communicate only with other neurons, typically in the brain region Dendrites: branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Cell body: in the neuron, where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and processed Axon: long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons Terminal buttons: small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse Synapse: the site for chemical communication between neurons, which contains extracellular fluid Myelin sheath: a fatty material made up of glial cells, that insulates the axon and allows for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon Node of ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials are transmitted Neuron structure: Neurons: basic unit of the nervous system; operates through electrical impulses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals. Neurons receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system The nervous system Chapter 3: Biological Foundations Monday, September 05, 2011 2:59 PM Psychology 1001 Page 1
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Resting membrane potential: the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active Action potential: the neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons All or none principle: principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time, although frequency can vary; it either fires or not; cannot partially fire Neurotransmitters: chemical substance that carries signals from one neuron to another Receptors: In neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Leader during the Fall '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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PSCY1101 Notes - Chapter 3 Biological Foundations Monday 2:59 PM How genes transmit information Chromosomes structures within the cells body that

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