927 Lecture The war years

927 Lecture The war years - 9/27 Lecture: The war years...

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General Aug 4, 1914 Pres Wilson declares neutrality But Amer sentiments were split From outset: propaganda war favored the Allies, particularly Br Also US closely tied to Allies commercially 1915 = $1.28B - $29m 1916 = $2.75B - $2m Late 1914 US asserted neutral rights Could command the seas Could strangle commerce Mined the N. Sea Expanded contraband list Inspected US ships Seized contraband from neutral vessels Halted Amer trade w/Ger Br was a naval power. But war at sea was biggest issue To offset Br advantage at sea, Germany had U-boats Amer issued protests to Eng Compensated Amer businesses Purchasing goods from Amer at inflated prices Br paid some deference to Amer Result, Amer, caught up in a war among Eur states As Paterson notes: Br managed brilliantly to sever Amer econ ties w/ the Central powers w/o rupturing Anglo-Amer relations.” Germany protested against Amer acquiescence Feb 1915 Berlin announced it would retaliate against Br No body of international law to guide Amer responses to Ger U-boats warfare Falaba, Mar 1915 – 1 Amer dead Lusitania, May 1915 – 128 Amer died Berlin disavowed attack Responded w/ ”Arabic Pledge” Amer prepares for war Pres seeks naval expansion Arabic, Aug 1915 – 2 Amer die A clear violation of Arabic Pledge US warns Ger again Ger responds w/ “Sussex Pledge” US takes additional measure to prepare for War Increases national guard from 180,000 to 457,000 May 1916 - Natl Defense Act Then came the Sussex – Mar 1916 Pres. Wilson seeks to mediate between belligerents Efforts failed Jan 22, 1917 Wilson: “Peace w/o victory” Then came the But Ger had to curb trade 9/27 Lecture: The war years Tuesday, September 27, 2011 12:27 PM US Foreign Policy Page 1
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Ger announced unrestricted sub warfare Calculated risk By early 1917 the crisis for the US grew Feb 3, 1917 US cuts diplomatic ties w/Berlin Feb Zimmermann telegram Unrestricted sub-warfare continues US goes to war Apr 4, 1917 May 1917 - Selective Service Act Between May & Sep 1917 > 1m Amer joined war By Jun Amer stopped Ger advance at Chateau Thierry; alleviated threat to allies By Oct w/German armies crumbling Nov 11 Germany surrenders New World Order Open covenants Freedom of Seas Removal of Econ Barriers Reduction in Armaments Re-adjustment of colonial claims – people should have voice Evacuation of occupied territories, re-adjustment of frontiers, re-drafting of boundaries Self-determination of peoples Independence of Poland For Formulation of a general Association of nations
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927 Lecture The war years - 9/27 Lecture: The war years...

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