LO-08 AFP War-Interwar1914-39

LO-08 AFP War-Interwar1914-39 - The War and Interwar Years...

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The War and Interwar Years 1914 – 1939 (LO-08)
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The War and Interwar Years 1914 - 1939 General Aug 4, 1914 Pres Wilson declares neutrality But Amer sentiments were split From outset: propaganda war favored the Allies, particularly Br Also US closely tied to Allies commercially 1915 = $1.28B - $29m 1916 = $2.75B - $2m But war at sea was biggest issue Late 1914 US asserted neutral rights Br was a naval power. Could command the seas Could strangle commerce Mined the N. Sea Expanded contraband list Inspected US ships Seized contraband from neutral vessels Halted Amer trade w/Ger To offset Br advantage at sea, Germany had U-boats Result, Amer, caught up in a war among Eur states Amer issued protests to Eng Br paid some deference to Amer Compensated Amer businesses Purchasing goods from Amer at inflated prices As Paterson notes: Br managed brilliantly to sever Amer econ ties w/ the Central powers w/o rupturing Anglo-Amer relations.” Germany protested against Amer acquiescence 2
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But Ger had to curb trade Feb 1915 Berlin announced it would retaliate against Br No body of international law to guide Amer responses to Ger U-boats warfare Between Feb & May 1915 – U-boats sank 90 ships in the “war Zone.” Then came the Falaba, Mar 1915 – 1 Amer dead Lusitania, May 1915 – 128 Amer died Arabic, Aug 1915 – 2 Amer die Berlin disavowed attack Responded w/ ”Arabic Pledge” Amer prepares for war Pres seeks naval expansion Then came the Sussex – Mar 1916 A clear violation of Arabic Pledge US warns Ger again Ger responds w/ “Sussex Pledge” US takes additional measure to prepare for War May 1916 - Natl Defense Act Increases size of Army from 130,000 offers & men to 211,000 Increases national guard from 180,000 to 457,000 Pres. Wilson seeks to mediate between belligerents Efforts failed Jan 22, 1917 Wilson: “Peace w/o victory” By early 1917 the crisis for the US grew Ger announced unrestricted sub warfare Calculated risk Feb 3, 1917 US cuts diplomatic ties w/Berlin Feb Zimmermann telegram Unrestricted sub-warfare continues 3
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US goes to war Apr 4, 1917 May 1917 - Selective Service Act Between May & Sep 1917 > 1m Amer joined war By Jun Amer stopped Ger advance at Chateau Thierry; alleviated threat to allies By Oct w/German armies crumbling Nov 11 Germany surrenders New World Order Wilson lays out 14 pts for peace Jan 8, 1918 , Including Open covenants Freedom of Seas Removal of Econ Barriers Reduction in Armaments Re-adjustment of colonial claims – people should have voice Evacuation of occupied territories, re-adjustment of frontiers, re-drafting of boundaries Self-determination of peoples Independence of Poland
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course INTA 3110 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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LO-08 AFP War-Interwar1914-39 - The War and Interwar Years...

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