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PlantKingdom213-page8 - As vascular plants become even more...

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Introduction to the Plant Kingdom - 8 Vascular Plant Adaptations to the Terrestrial Environment Protection of above ground body surfaces with a cuticle or surfaces tissues with impermeable cell walls layers minimizes water loss. Vascular tissue to provide a means for plants to increase dimension and volume. Vascular tissue supports the plant and conducts water and solutes throughout the plant body. Dependence on diffusion of water and nutrients affects plant size, as seen in the Bryophytes. The vascular plants all have a dominant sporophyte generation. They produce multiple numbers of sporangia on each sporophyte and the spore-dispersing vascular plants can disperse many airborne spores, which means plants can occupy more locations rapidly. Transport of sperm in many plants requires water. Motile sperm requiring water for transport limits plants ability to sexually reproduce. Gametophytes are greatly reduced in size as well as duration relative to the sporophyte in the vascular plants.
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Unformatted text preview: As vascular plants become even more complex, sperm are retained in the male gametophyte, the pollen grain, freeing sexual reproduction from water dependence. • In the seed plants, the seed (embryo sporophyte surrounded by nutrients and seed coat) replaces the haploid single-celled spore as the dispersal unit, providing the next generation with a "head start" on survival. These adaptations to the terrestrial environment have made vascular plants the predominant vegetation in most parts of the world. While abundant, Bryophytes are rarely predominant. To summarize, vascular plants have: • Body plan along a supporting axis (the stem) • Vascular tissue o Xylem promotes (allows) increase in size • Sporophyte generation independent and assimilative o Gametophyte often dependent on the sporophyte • Cutin and/or suberin produced on aerial parts to minimize dehydration • Generally large surface area/volume ratio o Allows land survival with less surface H 2 O...
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