Bryophytes - 2Some liverworts and hornworts have surface air pores for gas exchange andproduce a cuticle.As a group, bryophytes are individually small (2 cm - 20 cm) but often grow inprostrate masses or clumps of upright mosses forming “cushions”. Uprightgrowth without support tissue is not possible. They attach to the substrate withrhizoids that anchor the plant but do not function in absorption.Most bryophytes lack a cuticle layer and grow best in moist, shady habitats, butmany can tolerate dry areas by lowering their metabolic needs. (They desiccate.)Bryophyte sperm cells are motile (flagellated) and water, rain or dew, is requiredfor fertilization. Antheridia, the male reproductive structures, are typically apical,
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