Bryophytes213-page2 - Bryophytes 2 Some liverworts and...

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Bryophytes - 2 Some liverworts and hornworts have surface air pores for gas exchange and produce a cuticle. As a group, bryophytes are individually small (2 cm - 20 cm) but often grow in prostrate masses or clumps of upright mosses forming “cushions”. Upright growth without support tissue is not possible. They attach to the substrate with rhizoids that anchor the plant but do not function in absorption. Most bryophytes lack a cuticle layer and grow best in moist, shady habitats, but many can tolerate dry areas by lowering their metabolic needs. (They desiccate.) Bryophyte sperm cells are motile (flagellated) and water, rain or dew, is required for fertilization. Antheridia, the male reproductive structures, are typically apical,
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