angiorepro213-page17 - • Butterflies and moths are...

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Flowering Plant Reproduction - 17 Honey guides Normal Light Flower UV Filtered Light Flower Many bees are loyal pollinators and visit just one or a few species of flowers. There are some highly specific examples of bee-flower associations. Orchids are very specialized for their bee pollinators and often have traps or structures that ensure that the bee reaches where it needs to go. Orchids also concentrate their pollen in modified sticky organs called pollinia that adhere to the bee. One uses the phenomenon of pseudocopulation as the attractant (and reward). Some bees have become thieves. They have learned that nectar is located in the base of floral tubes (the hummingbird flowers) and chew holes in the base of the tubes to obtain nectar. Those bees that do so, do not pollinate. The native honeysuckle around the BCC campus is a plant subject to robber bees. Butterflies and Moths
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Unformatted text preview: • Butterflies and moths are attracted by both color and odor, so flowers have both visual and odor attractants. • Butterflies and moths that serve as pollinators may have a long proboscis, so flowers typically have a long nectar tube. In central America, a flower was found with a tube about 7”. A moth with a 7” proboscis was found to be the pollinator. • Butterflies are diurnal. Many see red so red flowers are common butterfly flowers. • Most moths are nocturnal. Moth flowers will be night-blooming and give off heavy, sweet attractant odors. • Butterflies and moths can hover over flowers and do not need to land on the flower to feed, in contrast to bees and most other insects. Other Insects Many other insects are occasional pollinators and nectar feeders. Many flies and mosquitoes are nectar feeders....
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