Outline Chapter 1

# Outline Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Physiology of Body Fluids...

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Chapter 1 Physiology of Body Fluids Kidneys are regulatory organs - Maintain the volume and composition of the body fluids constant despite variation in the daily intake of water and solutes We will review some of the basic principles, terminology, and concepts as it relates to properties of solutes in solution. Physiochemical Properties of Electrolyte Solutions Molarity Definition : Example : - - For uncharged solutes (glucose, urea), their concentrations in body fluids are expressed in molarity. Many biological substances are present in very low concentrations. - Their units are expressed in millimolar range (mmol/L or mM). Equlivalence Definition: - - Example: - 1 L NaCl Solution - Contains 9 g of NaCl (molecular weight = 58.4 g/mol) - What will be the molarity of this solution? - Since the valence of these ions is 1, these concentrations can be expressed as __________________________. For univalent ions (Na + , Cl - ), concentrations expressed __________________________________. Is this true for ions that have valences greater than 1?

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Example: It is customary to express concentration of ions in milliequivalents per liter. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure Osmosis Definition What is the driving force for the movement of water across cell membranes? - The Experiment - At equilibrium, what will stop the movement of water from B to A? Osmotic Pressure Determined solely by ________________________________. Do size, mass, or chemical nature (valence) of solute particles determine osmotic pressure? - The van’t Hoff’s Law : Π = nCRT where: n = # of dissociable particles per molecule C = Total solute concentration R = Gas constant T = Absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin (K) = 273 ° + ° C = 273 ° + 37 ° = 310 K
Consider a non-dissociable molecule, such as glucose or urea. A solution containing 1 mmol/L of glucose at 37

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Outline Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Physiology of Body Fluids...

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