Enzymes 113009 wo pics

Enzymes 113009 wo pics - BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS Speed up...

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1 ENZYMES (PG. 15-19) Lia M. Nightingale, Ph.D. BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS Speed up reactions without being consumed DO NOT shift equilibrium , just reach it faster Very specific Most are proteins BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS Body: Digestion & metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins Nearly all reactions Foods: Tenderize meat, ripen or brown fruits, chill-proof beer DEFINITIONS Cofactor inorganic component needed to work Fe, Mg, Zn, Se Minerals Coenzyme organic component needed to work Vit. B 6 , Vit. B 12 , thiamin, folate, riboflavin, biotin, niacin Vitamins DEFINITIONS Apoenzyme protein part of enzyme only Missing cofactor/coenzyme Holoenzyme complete (active) enzyme Ferrireductase Ferrireductase Vit C DEFINITIONS Zymogen enzyme precursor (inactive) Must be converted to active form Trypsinogen (inactive) Enterokinase Trypsin (active) Removed amino acids
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2 NAMING ENZYMES Based on: What it reacts with How it reacts Add ase to ending NOT ALWAYS, but most of the time Examples: Lactose is milk sugar enzyme that digests lactose is lactase Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme that removes hydrogen from alcohol to form an aldehyde ENZYME CLASSIFICATION 1. Oxidoreductase Addition or removal of H Requires coenzymes (NAD + Dehydrogenase remove H Reductase add H Ex. Enzymes found in electron transport chain in mitochondria, Krebs cycle, AA metabolism NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE (NAD + ) C O NH 2 CH 2 P O O - O CH 2 P O O - O O Nicotinamide (niacin) Ribose Adenosine FLAVIN ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE (FAD) CH 2 P O O O - O P O O - O Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) From riboflavin ENZYME CLASSIFICATION 2. Transferase Transfer a functional group from one molecule to another Transketolase, transaldolase Transaminase, transmethylase Phosphotransferase transfer phosphate group from ATP onto another group Ex. Krebs cycle, AA metabolism A-B + C ↔ A + B-C ENZYME CLASSIFICATION 3. Hydrolase Causes hydrolysis reactions Water breaks bond Lipase, protease, phosphatase, amylase Ex. Digestive enzymes (enzymes to digest lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, etc.), AA metabolism A-B + H 2 O ↔ A-H + B-OH
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3 ENZYME CLASSIFICATION 4. Isomerase Rearrange functional groups on one molecule Racemase, epimerase, mutase Ex. Phosphohexose isomerase converts glu-6- phospate to fru-6-phosphate in glycolysis , Krebs cycle, AA metabolism A-B-C ↔ A-C-B ENZYME CLASSIFICATION 5. Lyase Cleaves C-C, C-S or C-N bonds (excluding peptide bonds) Decarboxylase (COO - CO 2 ) Aldolase Deaminase remove amine from AA
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Enzymes 113009 wo pics - BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS Speed up...

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