Lipids 122109 2 slide

Lipids 122109 2 slide - LIPIDS CH. 5 Lia M. Nightingale,...

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1 L IPIDS C H . 5 Lia M. Nightingale, Ph.D. Lipids Fats Oils
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2 R OLES OF L IPIDS IN THE B ODY Energy Insulation & protection Cell membrane integrity Steroid hormones & hormone-like compounds Fat-soluble vitamin absorption E NERGY Lipids provide ____________ kcal/g. Found in reduced form One pound of fat contains __________ kcal. In order to lose 1 pound/week, a patient must average a 500 kcal deficit per day (through diet Conversely, if a patient wants to gain 1 pound/week, they must eat 500 kcal/day more than their energy expenditure.
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3 L IPID C LASSES Lipids Simple lipids Fatty acids (FA) Triglycerides (TGs) Sterols & steroids Complex lipids Phospholipids Phosphate Glycolipids Carbs Something else attached to lipid F ATTY A CIDS Hydrophobic CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O Hydrophilic Notice the carboxylic acid is ionized at physiologic pH. Why would this be? Also called acyls
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4 F ATTY A CID (FA) C LASSIFICATION Fatty acids Number of carbons (chain length) Number of double bonds (saturation) F ATTY A CIDS (FA) C HAIN L ENGTH Short chain 4-6 C long Butyric acid Medium chain 8-12 C long Lauric acid Long chain 14-24 C long Palmitic acid, essential fatty acids
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5 F ATTY A CIDS (FA) S ATURATION Saturated (SFA) No double bonds Fats Monounsaturated (MUFA) 1 double bond Oils Polyunsaturated (PUFA) >1 double bond Oils F ATTY A CIDS Saturated fatty acid (SFA) No double bonds Fats at room temperature CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O - O
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6 F ATTY A CIDS Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) 1 double bond Generally oils at room T COO - There is a C at each kink Methyl F ATTY A CIDS Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) >1 double bonds Oils at room T COO -
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7 PUFA Notice double bonds have methyl group in between = methylene interrupted Allows a more flexible structure COO - Methyleneinterruption; conjugated bonds (single and double bonds alternate) Can rotate around the methylene in the middle to several conformations FA N OMENCLATURE ω Δ COO - There are 2 ways of numbering double bonds: Δ and ω (depending on which end you number from)
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