Macro Micro buffers 021611 wo pics

Macro Micro buffers 021611 wo pics - KILOCALORIES (KCAL) 1...

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1 M ACRONUTRIENTS , M ICRONUTRIENTS , B UFFERS & THE C ELL C HS . 1, 11-13 Lia M. Nightingale, Ph.D. KILOCALORIES (KCAL) 1 kcal is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 C 1 kcal = 1 Calorie ( C al) = 1000 cal 1 calorie ( c al) = raise 1g water by 1 C Calories on nutritional label are kcal or Cal ADENOSINE PHOSPHATES ΔG 0 = -7,300 cal/mol Adenine P P P Ribose Phosphates Adenine + ribose = Adenosine Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) ΔG 0 = -7,300 cal/mol MACRO VS. MICRO Macronutrients Required in gram quantities/day Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Micronutrients Required in milligram or microgram quantities/day Vitamins & minerals MACRONUTRIENTS Proteins Polymers of amino acids (AA) Contains C, H, O, N Enzymes, peptide hormones, transport proteins, structural proteins 4 kcal/g MACRONUTRIENTS Carbohydrates Major source of fuel for the body (especially brain) Sugars, starches, fiber Glycogen Contains C, H, O 4 kcal/g
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MACRONUTRIENTS Lipids Fatty acids Triglycerides Phospholipids Contains C, H, O Much more nonpolar 9 kcal/g Lipids Fats Oils Vitamins A, D, E, K Little lost during cooking Toxic in large amounts Be careful with supplements!! All fat-soluble vitamins require bile for digestion & absorption FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin C B Vitamins Folate, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, B 6 , B 12 , pantothenic acid, biotin Significantly lost during cooking Very little are stored If large doses are taken, much of it ends up in urine Less of a toxicity issue WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Less water the better!! Minerals Major >100 mg/day Ca, Cl, Mg, P, K, Na, S Trace <100 mg/day Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, I, Se, Mn, Mo Ultratrace <1 mg/day As, B, Ni, Si SIDE NOTE: CALCIUM ABSORPTION Calcium type * Carbonate Acetate Lactate Citrate Gluconate % absorbed 39 32 32 30 27 *Requires 1 hour in an acidic environment to be absorbed. WATER
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Macro Micro buffers 021611 wo pics - KILOCALORIES (KCAL) 1...

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