Proteins 021511 wo pics

Proteins 021511 wo pics - INTRODUCTION Most abundant...

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1 P ROTEINS C H . 6 [ PG . 179-189, 211- 243] Lia M. Nightingale, Ph.D. INTRODUCTION Most abundant macromolecule In body 40% in skeletal muscle 25% in organs Polymers of amino acids BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS Signaling compounds Peptide hormones AA derivatives Cytokines Receptors BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS Hormones chemical messengers made in 1 part of the body that regulates another part Peptide hormones Ex. Glucagon, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, insulin Amino acid derivatives Tyrosine thyroid hormones (thyroxine) , catecholamines (neurotransmitters in brain dopamine, Histidine histamine (immune response, associated with allergies) Tryptophan - serotonin (neurotransmitter regulating mood, sleep, appetite), melatonin (regulates sleep-wake cycle) CYTOKINES Small proteins that act as regulators of growth & differentiation Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) IL-6 C-reactive protein (CRP) IL-10 Produced during acute & chronic inflammation, cancer, obesity, stress, injury & degenerative disc disease . Produced during exercise (anti-inflammatory) Best indicator of inflammation Handschin. 2008. Nature . 454:463. Podichetty. 2007. Cel Mol Biol . 53:4. Brun. 2005. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 290:E961. Hiscock. 2005. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 289:E2. Lakka. 2005. Eur Heart J. 26:2018. Petersen. 2005. J Appl Physiol. 98:1154. Guiot. 2000. Neurosurgery . 47:1034. BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 2. Structural Proteins Fibrous proteins Collagen, elastin, keratin Contractile proteins (65% of muscle) Actin Myosin
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2 BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 3. Immunoproteins (immunoglobulins, antibodies) Y-shaped proteins containing 4 peptides Bind to antigens and inactivate Five classes IgG general, 75% of Ig in plasma IgA in secetions (tears, saliva, breast milk) IgM response to malaria IgE - allergies IgD chronic infections BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 4. Transport Proteins Combine with other substances & acts as mode of transport through body Albumin calcium, zinc, vitamin B 6 Hemoglobin oxygen Transferrin iron Vitamin D-binding protein Vitamin D Vitamin D-binding protein Vitamin D BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 5. Enzymes Biological catalysts Speed up reaction by lowering energy needed for reaction to occur Not used up in process Regulate metabolic pathways Rate-limiting enzymes Necessary for life BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 6. Fluid Balance Water interacts with several groups on protein Charged residues Peptide backbone Hydroxyl groups Water attracted to protein BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS 6. Fluid Balance Protein deficiency can cause fluid to leak into
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This note was uploaded on 01/07/2012 for the course PHCH 51311 taught by Professor Nightingale during the Summer '11 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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Proteins 021511 wo pics - INTRODUCTION Most abundant...

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