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Proteins 021511 wo pics - INTRODUCTION Most abundant...

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1 P ROTEINS C H . 6 [ PG . 179-189, 211- 243] Lia M. Nightingale, Ph.D. I NTRODUCTION Most abundant macromolecule In body 40% in skeletal muscle 25% in organs Remaining in skin & blood Polymers of amino acids B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 1. Signaling compounds & receptors Signaling compounds Peptide hormones AA derivatives Cytokines Receptors B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS Hormones chemical messengers made in 1 part of the body that regulates another part Peptide hormones Ex. Glucagon, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, insulin Amino acid derivatives Tyrosine thyroid hormones (thyroxine) , catecholamines (neurotransmitters in brain dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine) Histidine histamine (immune response, associated with allergies) Tryptophan - serotonin (neurotransmitter regulating mood, sleep, appetite), melatonin (regulates sleep-wake cycle) C YTOKINES Small proteins that act as regulators of growth & differentiation Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ) IL-6 Positive & negative benefits C-reactive protein (CRP) IL-10 Produced during acute & chronic inflammation, cancer, obesity, stress, injury & degenerative disc disease . Produced during exercise (anti-inflammatory) Best indicator of inflammation Handschin. 2008. Nature . 454:463. Podichetty. 2007. Cell Mol Biol . 53:4. Brun. 2005. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 290:E961. Hiscock. 2005. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 289:E2. Lakka. 2005. Eur Heart J. 26:2018. Petersen. 2005. J Appl Physiol. 98:1154. Guiot. 2000. Neurosurgery . 47:1034. B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 2. Structural Proteins Fibrous proteins Collagen, elastin, keratin Contractile proteins (65% of muscle) Actin Myosin
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2 B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 3. Immunoproteins (immunoglobulins, antibodies) Y-shaped proteins containing 4 peptides Bind to antigens and inactivate Five classes IgG general, 75% of Ig in plasma IgA in secetions (tears, saliva, breast milk) IgM response to malaria IgE - allergies IgD chronic infections B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 4. Transport Proteins Combine with other substances & acts as mode of transport through body Albumin calcium, zinc, vitamin B 6 Hemoglobin oxygen Transferrin iron Vitamin D-binding protein Vitamin D Vitamin D-binding protein Vitamin D B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 5. Enzymes Biological catalysts Speed up reaction by lowering energy needed for reaction to occur Not used up in process Regulate metabolic pathways Rate-limiting enzymes Necessary for life B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 6. Fluid Balance Water interacts with several groups on protein Charged residues Peptide backbone Hydroxyl groups Water attracted to protein B IOLOGICAL F UNCTIONS OF P ROTEINS 6. Fluid Balance Protein deficiency can cause fluid to leak into interstitial spaces causing edema Deficiency can be caused by kidney disease, large wounds, liver disease, malnutrition Kwashiorkor
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