experimental designs

experimental designs - Experimental designs The strongest...

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Experimental designs The strongest of the research designs Image: www.freeimages.co.uk
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Categories of research Quantitative Involves numerical data that result from taking measurements on subjects Is objective Deductive reasoning Is used to test theories or ideas to determine whether or not they are true The researcher is an objective observer Image: www.freeimages.co.uk
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Categories of research (cont.) Qualitative Involves data derived from words e.g., questionnaires or interviews Is subjective Inductive reasoning Reasoning based on observations which are used to create an idea or theory The researcher actively involved at times
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Quantitative vs. qualitative research Quantitative research employs the scientific method and is usually regarded at a higher level But may have limited relevance to clinical practice because of strict methods Qualitative research often leads to quantitative studies Both forms of research are important
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Pragmatic and explanatory research Pragmatic research Used to verify the effectiveness of treatments i.e., whether they work under real-life conditions Does not determine how or why the treatments work Typically used to help make decisions about the effectiveness of new treatments compared with existing treatments
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Pragmatic and explanatory research (cont.) Explanatory research Used to establish the efficacy of treatments i.e., how they work under ideal conditions, as in a controlled experiment Capable of answering questions about how and why treatments work Strict methods involved are often very different from day-to-day clinical practice Consequently, results may not be relevant to practitioners
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Pragmatic and explanatory research (cont.) Patient selection is more strict in explanatory studies Patients are excluded because of things like co-morbid conditions, prior treatment, severity of the condition, age, etc. This may be a disadvantage because it is not known whether the treatment will work for patients in everyday practice Patients commonly present with many of the exclusion criteria
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Descriptive, relational, and causal research Descriptive (observational) research Observes and records various aspects of participants in a study Descriptive statistics involved Relational research Considers relationships that may exist between variables Correlation and regression
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Descriptive, relational, and causal research (cont.) Causal research Explores whether an intervention causes or affects one or more outcome variables The most demanding type of research that involves very detailed methods Looks for statistically significant differences between groups
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Experimental and quasi- experimental research Experimental research Random assignment to groups is involved Capable of determining cause-and-effect relationships Quasi-experimental research No random assignment Provides much less evidence about cause- and-effect relationships
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experimental designs - Experimental designs The strongest...

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