Literature Review Intro - Literature review designs...

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1 ©  2006-7 Literature review designs Narrative Review Systematic Review Meta-analysis
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 2 Literature review Defined as a systematic, explicit, and reproducible way of identifying, evaluating, and interpreting all of the research findings and scholarly work available on a topic A high-quality review is not haphazard Ideally, all of the existing work should be included Considered descriptive or observational
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 3 Meta-analysis Quantitatively combines the results of studies that are the result of a systematic literature review. Capable of performing a statistical analysis of the pooled results of relevant studies. The three types of literature review designs Narrative Review Selective review of the literature that broadly covers a specific topic. Does not   follow strict systematic methods to locate and synthesize articles. Systematic Review Utilizes exacting search strategies to make certain that the maximum extent of relevant research has been considered. Original articles are methodologically appraised and synthesized.
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 4 Narrative reviews Summarize in general what is in the literature on a given topic Often written by experts in a given field A good source for background information Do not follow strict systematic methods like the other literature review designs Therefore, they are prone to bias Lower in the hierarchy of evidence
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 5 Narrative reviews (cont.) Authors like to write them relatively easy to carry out and compose Practitioners like to read them easier to comprehend than more complex designs Do not require a lot of background knowledge to understand the message
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 6 Narrative reviews are prone to bias Very little safeguard against Bias Authors may be selective as to which articles are included They may include articles that support their hypothesis and exclude those that do not Rigorous appraisal methods are not used to evaluate included articles
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 7 Prone to bias (cont.) During the literature search Authors have their own opinions on the topic and may try to find studies that support their viewpoint and overlook conflicting studies During the synthesis of the literature Analysis of collected information is often subjective and disorganized
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 8 Prone to bias (cont.) In the discussion and conclusion The authors’ opinions may be mixed together with evidence Authors may simply count the number of studies on each side of an issue and then espouse the view presented by the majority without considering the strength of each study e.g., quality, research design used, the effect size, and sample size
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Evidence-based Chiropractic ©  2006-7 9 Selection bias in narrative reviews a.k.a., reference bias
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