# B the actual freezing level in the tropics

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Unformatted text preview: ussed). c.) Ignoring the complication of part (b), derive an expression for the change in freezing height Hf that would accompany a change in surface temperature Ts. If the 800 mb level was 3.5C cooler at the LGM than at present (we'd expect the 800 mb level to have cooled by a little more than the surface if = m), is the observed snowline descent approximately consistent with the surface LGM cooling inferred by Lea et al.? d.) There has been considerable controversy about how temperature at the surface and in the troposphere has been changing in recent decades, but after exhaustive attempts to account for all biases in satellite instruments and radiosondes (weather balloons), a consensus appears to be emerging that the troposphere warmed a little more than the surface did over the past half a century. Are these changes (qualitatively) consistent with the ideas used to reconcile inferred changes at the LGM? Explain. Problem #2: Consider dry air in a closed container with a volume of 1 m3, a pressure of 1000 mb, and a temperature of 25oC. (a) What is the density and specific volume v? (b) How many molecules are in the container? (c) If the container is surrounded by a vacuum, what would be the total force exerted on the interior walls (assume the container is a cube)? (d) How many molecules would leave the volume in 1 s if a hole 1 mm2 is made in the container? (e) If instead of a vacuum, the container is surrounded by air at a temperature of 30 oC and a pressure of 1000 mb, would the number of molecules in the container initially increase, decrease or remain the same? Explain. Problem #3: Write an expression for the sensitivity of evaporation rate to surface temperature (dE/dT). Based on this, if the radiative forcing of CO2 is balanced by an increase in evaporation, would you expect a larger surface temperature change in the tropics or polar regions? p c pd Problem #4: Show that potential temperature, = 0 , and dry static energy, p c p T + , are conserved for dry adiabatic processes. Rd...
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