chapter4 - A A E 5 90E 4 Flight Mechanics of Space...

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Ch4 – 1 AAE 590E 4. Flight Mechanics of Space Propulsion Systems 4. Flight Mechanics of Space Propulsion Systems
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Ch4 – 2 AAE 590E Characteristics Characteristics Chemical Propulsion ENERGY LIMITED Energy available in chemical reaction and convertible to chamber enthalpy of gas, Tolerable heat transfer to combustion chamber and/or nozzle throat, Frozen flow losses and radiation losses in exhaust jet. Electric Propulsion POWER LIMITED Power produced by source (nuclear, solar) will strongly depend on mass. Energy conversion rate dictated by the conversion method. Material restrictions due to tolerable heat transfer. Separate power source! Payload Propellant Power Thrust Exhaust (Momentum Flux) Thruster Powerplant Payload Propellant Thrust Exhaust (Momentum Flux) Engine
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Ch4 – 3 AAE 590E Propulsion Technology Propulsion Technology 10 -4 10 2 10 3 10 4 Vehicle Acceleration or T/W Ratio (g s) Specific Impulse [s] 10 -2 10 -1 1 10 10 2 10 3 Power Density (kW/kg) = 10 4 PULSED FISSION 10 -5 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 1 10 10 2 NON-CHEM RBCC CHEMICAL RBCC THERMAL FISSION Unproven Technology (TRL 1-3) Demonstrated Technology (TRL 4-6) Operational Systems (TRL 7-9) ELECTRO- THERMAL ROCKETS CHEMICAL ROCKETS ELECTRO- MAGNETIC ROCKETS SPECULATIVE MOTIVE PHYSICS SAILS ANTIMATTER CONTINUOUS FUSION Deep Space Launch Omniplanetary 10 6 10 5 10 7 PULSED FUSION Develop the Frontier (2010 - 2023) Expand the Frontier (> 2023) LASER/SOLAR THERMAL ROCKETS ELECTRO- STATIC ROCKETS
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Ch4 – 4 AAE 590E FUNDAMENTALS FUNDAMENTALS Thrust/Power Ratio as Function of Spec. Impulse Thrust/Power [N/kW] Specific Impulse [s]
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Ch4 – 5 AAE 590E EP/Power Sources For Space Missions EP/Power Sources For Space Missions Mission Energy Piloted Outer Planets Inner System Sample Returns Inner Planets,Comets, Asteroids Earth Orbit Solar Nuclear Nuclear Isotope Solar with AeroCap & Chem Solar Solar at Earth with Aerocapture & Chemical at Target Nuclear Isotope ION HALL MPD, PIT, VaSIMR
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Ch4 – 6 AAE 590E Definitions Definitions Essential Components of Spacecraft propelled by EP Total Initial Mass Burnout Mass Spacecraft Bus Electric Propulsion System Electric Thruster Propellant Feed System Power Processing Unit (PPU) Propellant Tank Spacecraft Subsystems C&DH RCS GN&C TCS RF SW Science Payload Payload M PL Power (Thrust)–Producing System M W Propellant M P M 0 = M P + M W + M PL M b = M W + M PL
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Ch4 – 7 AAE 590E Subsystem Characteristics Subsystem Characteristics Definitions Power in Exhaust (Jet): Power Input to EP: Power Efficiency Specific Power Specific Mass Mass Ratios Mass Ratio Payload Ratio Structural Coefficient ! int = P out P in = 1 2 ! m v 2 P in = Kinetic Power in Jet Input Power ! = P M = Power Produced Associated Mass kW kg " # $ % & ! = M P = Associated Mass Power Produced kg kW " # $ % & P jet = 1 2 !
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