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chapter5_1_44 - A A E 5 90E 5 INTRODUCTION TO...

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Ch5 – 1 AAE 590E 5. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRODYNAMICS 5. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRODYNAMICS
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Ch5 – 2 AAE 590E 5.1 ELECTROSTATICS 5.1 ELECTROSTATICS
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Ch5 – 3 AAE 590E Where do charged particles come from? What are mechanisms to generate charge particles? Ionization by collisions: Electron, Positive ion or neutral atom, Radiation (photo ionization). What type of interaction do we observe with charged particles? Thermal ionization, Surface ionization, High-frequency electric fields, Electron attachment.
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Ch5 – 4 AAE 590E Definitions/Observations Definitions/Observations Observations: There are two kinds of electric charges: Positive & Negative. Like charges repel each other; unlike charges attract each other. Charge Mobility: Frictional electricity, Motion strongly depending on the nature of material/substance. Definitions: A “Point Charge” is defined as a charged object whose radius is very small compared to the distance between it and other charged objects of interest. The special case, where all source charges are STATIONARY , though the test charge may be moving, is called ELECTROSTATICS . Conductors: charges move easily. Insulators: charge experience NO or little movement.
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Ch5 – 5 AAE 590E Coulomb’s Law Coulomb’s Law French physicist Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736-1806) 1785, Coulomb conducted experiments with a torsion balance to explore the law of forces between electrical charges. Coulomb establish a relationship between force and distance, quantitatively. Later expended to capture relative size of charges: Coulomb’s Law describes the electric force between two point-like electrically charged objects: NOTE: Coulomb’s Law holds only for Point Charges! ! F = 1 4 ! " 0 k # Q 1 Q 2 r 12 2 # ˆ r F ! q 1 q 2 r 2 F = ! F = 1 4 !" 0 k # Q 1 Q 2 r 12 2 Magnitudes of Electric Charges Unit Vector Dialectic Constant Permitivity of Free Space ˆ r = ! r ! r ! 0 = 8.85 " 10 # 12 F m = 8.85 " 10 # 12 C 2 Nm 2
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Ch5 – 6 AAE 590E Definition of Electric Field Definition of Electric Field Definition: Faraday invented the concept of force field lines. He defined that: the direction of force lines coincides with direction of electric field at that point, the density of force lines is proportional to the strength of the field. The “virtual force”, which charged particles experience, is called ELECTRIC FIELD. Electric Field: NOTE: The word field has a special meaning in mathematical physics. A field is a physical quantity that has a value at every location in space. Its value can be a scalar or vector. + q Test _ q Test + ! E = ! F q N C ! " # $ % & + q 2 + Q Source + ! E 1 ! F 2 ! F 2 = q 2 ! ! E 1
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Ch5 – 7 AAE 590E Electric Field Electric Field Point Charge Coulomb’s Law: Electric Field: Direction/Patterns Definition: Positive direction of electric field points away from the positive charge.
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