The behavioral perspective- psych 300

The behavioral perspective- psych 300 - The behavioral...

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The behavioral perspective Believe the study of subjective experience (free association, dream analysis) did not provide acceptable scientific data. not open to verification ? ?   by other investigators. Believe only the observable behavior stimuli and reinforcing conditions that control it could serve as a basis for understanding human beavhiour, normal and abnormal. Learning : modification of behavior as a consequence of experience central theme of behavioral approach. Classical conditioning. λ Specific stimulus comes to elicit a specific response through the process of classical conditioning. Ex) food (unconditional stimulus UCS) salivation (UCR) Although food elicits salivation, but a stimulus can also precedes and signals the presentation of food that can come to elicit salivation. Ex) stimulus that signals food delivery = Conditioned stimulus λ Animals and people acquire information about what CS allow them to predict, expect or prepare for an upcoming biologically significant event (UCS= food). stimulus- stimulus expectancy λ Conditioned responses = maintained over time = when presented with UCS Presented without UCS= Extinction conditioned response gradually extinguishes Spontaneous recover = when forgotten response return at some future point in time. λ Physiological and emotional responses can be conditioned fear, anxiety, sexual arousal, alcohol and other drugs. λ Learn a fear of dark if fear producing stimuli (frightening dreams, or fantasies.)occur regularly I the dark. λ Acquire fear of snake bitten by snake Instrumental conditioning (operant) λ Individual learns how to achieve a desired goal λ Reinforcement: delivery a reward or pleasant stimulus, or to the escape from an aversive stimulus. Response outcome expectancy: learns that a response will lead to a reward outcome
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Ex) being hungry opening the refrigerator (response learned) λ Reinforcement invariably follow the response = maintain high rates of responding λ Reinforcement consistently withheld conditioned response extinguishes stop making response λ Operant learning important mechanism for discrimination between what will prove rewarding and what will prove unrewarding λ Acquiring the behaviors for coping with our world. Generalization and discrimination Generalization: when a response is conditioned to one stimulus or set of stimuli, it can be evoked by others stimuli Ex) fears bee generalize fear to all flying insects λ Discrimination: occurs when a person learns to distinguish between similar stimuli and to respond differently to them based on which ones are followed by reinforcement. λ
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The behavioral perspective- psych 300 - The behavioral...

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