10-Forwarding - Transport and TCP EE122 Fall 2011 Scott...

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1 Transport and TCP EE122 Fall 2011 Scott Shenker http://inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~ee122/ Materials with thanks to Jennifer Rexford, Ion Stoica, Vern Paxson and other colleagues at Princeton and UC Berkeley
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Announcements • All account issues should be resolved by now – Please check your accounts one last time • Project 2 released on Wednesday • HW2 has been released • HW1 key has been released • We now have a grader (probably two!) – Will grade HW1 asap… • No office hours this week – Will be available M, W, and Th of next week – But not at normal office hours….so contact me for time 2
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Agenda • Review of addressing • Forwarding • Transport • Next lecture: TCP and starting DNS 3
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Review of Addressing • Notation: dotted quad (e.g., 16.45.231.117) – Set of four 8-bit numbers • Structure: (prefix, suffix) – Network component (prefix) – Host component (suffix) • Slash notation: /x means that prefix is x bits long • Addressing schemes: – Original: prefix of length 8 (all addresses in /8s) – Classful: opening bits determined length of prefix E.g., 0 meant /8, 10 meant /16, 110 meant /24, 1110 meant mcast Classless (CIDR): explicit mask defines prefix 4
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5 CIDR Addressing IP Address : 12.4.0.0 IP Mask: 255.254.0.0 00001100 00000100 00000000 00000000 11111111 11111110 00000000 00000000 Address Mask for hosts Network Prefix Use two 32-bit numbers to represent a network location Address + Mask Written as 12.4.0.0/15 or 12.4/15
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6 Special-Purpose Address Blocks • Private addresses – By agreement, not routed in the public Internet – For networks not meant for general Internet connectivity – Blocks: 10.0.0.0/8 , 172.16.0.0/12 , 192.168.0.0/16 • Link-local – By agreement, not forwarded by any router – Used for single-link communication only – Intent: autoconfiguration (especially when DHCP fails) – Block: 169.254.0.0/16 • Loopback – Address blocks that refer to the local machine – Block: 127.0.0.0/8 – Usually only 127.0.0.1/32 is used • Limited broadcast – Sent to every host attached to the local network – Block: 255.255.255.255/32
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Allocation Done Hierarchically • ICANN gives large blocks to. .. • Regional Internet Registries, which give blocks to. .. • Large institutions (ISPs), which give addresses to. .. • Individuals and smaller institutions • Examples: ICANN b ARIN b AT&T b Customer ICANN b ARIN b UCB b Department 7
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FAKE Example in More Detail • ICANN gives ARIN several /8s, including 12.0/8 Network Prefix: 00001100 • ARIN gives ACME Internet a /16, 12.197/16 Network Prefix: 0000110011000101 • ACME give XYZ Hosting a /24, 12.197.45/24 Network Prefix: 000011001100010100101101 • XYZ gives customer specific address 12.197.45.23 Address: 00001100110001010010110100010111 8
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Addressing Structure All about address aggregation Only way to make Internet scalable (2 billion users!) • Want to represent routing tables more compactly – Using aggregation, which involves special structure
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course ELECTRICAL 122 taught by Professor Shenker during the Spring '11 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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10-Forwarding - Transport and TCP EE122 Fall 2011 Scott...

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