1. Basic Concepts and Terms
Consider the following concepts and terms: Autonomous Systems, Bellman-Ford, Congestion Control,
Count-to-Infinity, Cryptographic Hash, Digital Signature, Dijkstra’s Algorithm, Duplicate
Acknowledgements, End-to-End Principle, Fate Sharing, Flow Control, Hidden Terminal, Peer-to-
Peer, Poisoned Reverse, Policy Oscillations, Priority Packet Scheduling, Slow Start, Public Key
Cryptography, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Three-Way Handshake.
Match these terms to the descriptions, using each term exactly once
(a) A design style that involves many equivalent nodes, rather than a few specialized servers.
(b) Something that can happen in BGP that results in unstable routing tables.
(c) The problem in wireless networking of a sender not being able to detect if its transmissions will
collide with those of another node because the sender cannot itself hear the other node’s
transmissions, even though the receiver can.
(d) A technique in distance-vector routing that prevents some cases of looping by not allowing a node
A to advertise a route to node B if A would forward packets to node B as the first hop of that route.
(e) If the technique in item (d) above is not applied, this phenomenon can occur, which then requires
many iterations of the routing protocol before a routing loop is removed.
(f) The mechanism used by TCP to open up the congestion window quickly, and is used only if the
connection is not operating in Congestion Avoidance.
(g) A class of encryption algorithms that require use of a shared secret key.
(h) A class of encryption algorithms that allow a host to make an encryption key widely known while
remaining the only entity that can decrypt messages encrypted with this key.
(i) The mechanism used by TCP to reliably establish a connection.
(j) The entities that BGP provides routes between; BGP describes its paths in terms of a series of
(k) A cryptographic primitive that ensures that the particular piece of data did come from a particular
source (or equivalently, prevents a source from repudiating that it sent that message).