mt2_study_guide - Midterm 2 Study Guide Pipelining o Basic...

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Midterm 2 Study Guide Pipelining o Basic concept and goal o Key points on Lec10-slide 7 o What makes pipelining hard? o Pipeline registers: purpose, overhead incurred, etc o Latency vs. bandwidth § How does pipelining affect these wrt to a single instruction? o Structural, control and data hazards § What are they? § Do they exist in the MIPS 5-stage pipeline as you have implemented? Why/why not? § If a hazard exists (independent of the architecture), what steps or measures can be taken to remove the hazard? § How do hazards affect the flow of instructions? o Why is it beneficial for all MIPS instructions to take all 5 stages, even if some stages are not used by all instructions? o Data dependencies vs. data hazard o Data forwarding § What is it? § How does it work? § What are the benefits? § How does it ensure correct data flow? § What data hazards cannot be removed by forwarding? What must be done? o Code evaluation: § Given some assembly code, identify the data dependencies and data hazards o Software scheduling: § What is it? § Where is it done? § Why does it still ensure correct data flow? § Given code with load-use hazards, reorder code to remove hazards – See Lec11-slide 19-21 o Branch hazards § Why are branches so bad for performance? § Describe the optimization that moves the branch determination from the 4 th cycle to the 2 nd cycle in your MIPS 5-stage pipeline. § What is a branch delay slot? How does it improve performance?
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mt2_study_guide - Midterm 2 Study Guide Pipelining o Basic...

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