Diseases of Large Mammals

Diseases of Large Mammals - Diseases of Wildlife: Large...

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1 Diseases of Wildlife: Large Mammals Patrice N. Klein, MS VMD DACPV DACVPM Senior Staff Veterinarian Wildlife Disease Liaison USDA/APHIS/VS – Riverdale, MD “Large Mammals” Ruminants Bison Musk Ox Deer Elk Moose Caribou Mountain Goat Big Horn Sheep Carnivores Bear (Grizzly, Black) Polar bear Mountain Lion Bobcat Wolf Coyote Fox (Red, Grey, Artic) Starvation/Malnutrition Insufficient food resources, wintertime, drought, physical problems (injury, bad teeth, parasites) Young, old, weak, sick most susceptible Appearance- dull, rough hair coat, sunken eyes, prominent bones of shoulders, ribs, pelvis, general weakness Absence of pericardial, peri-renal fat, abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat on post-mortem exam Bone marrow scoring and body condition index (BCI) Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Anerobic, spore forming bacteria that persists in environment for years. Worldwide distribution. All mammals are susceptible . Ruminants (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer, antelope, camel) are most susceptible. Horses, swine, dogs, cats, and humans have moderate susceptibility. Many carnivores have natural resistance. Recent outbreaks: TX – 2005, 2007 (deer, cattle) NE, ND, SD, NM, MT – 2008, 2009 (cattle, bison, horses) NWT, Canada – 2010 (bison) Anthrax Transmission: Ingestion of contaminated water, soil, food; inhalation of spores in dust; insect bites/ skin wounds; Spores germinate in lymph nodes, multiply, and release toxins. Clinical signs: High fever, muscle tremors, swollen lymph nodes, dysphagia, dyspnea, convulsions, colic, enteritis, bloody discharges (unclotted), death without rigor mortis. Ataxia, sudden death, rapid bloating, bloody discharges DO NOT OPEN CARCASS! Anthrax Incubation 1-14 day range
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2 Anthrax Human cases – Cutaneous Anthrax (CT 2007) – animal skins for drums Inhalation Anthrax (UK 2008) – animal skins for drums Diagnosis Culture of blood, tissues, skin lesions Serology (antibody titers) Treatment: Ciprofloxacin (enrofloxacin), penicillin, tetracycline (doxycycline). Vaccination: available for livestock and humans Disposal: carcasses, bedding, manure – burned with wood or gasoline to cleanse the ground area Brucellosis Brucella species: B. abortus (bison, elk) B. suis (caribou, reindeer, feral swine) Transmitted in placental fluids, aborted tissues Causes abortions, arthritis, sinovitis in animals Carnivores get disease by eating infected meat First reported in bison (Yellowstone National Park, 1917) and elk (National Elk Refuge, 1930) Brucellosis Brucellosis Eradication Program, 1934 Test and slaughter Herd vaccination (strain 19, RB 51) No effective vaccination in wild bison, elk Public health significance ZOONOTIC, reportable disease “Undulent fever” Cooking kills the bacteria; no reported cases in
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Diseases of Large Mammals - Diseases of Wildlife: Large...

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