Lecture 1 general dz

Lecture 1 general dz - Lecture 1 Wildlife Disease General...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1 Wildlife Disease General Disease Cindy P. Driscoll, DVM Health & Disease Sept. 12, 2011 Slide 1 Presentation Outline: Disease definition Categories of disease Definitions / terminology Specific disease examples: WNV FMD CWD Anthrax EHD Slide 2 Why Study Disease Why not? Slide 3 Definitions: Disease Any deviation from normal health Marked by physiological, anatomical, or chemical changes in the body Slide 4 Slide 5 Categories of Disease: "DAMNBIT" Developmental: Degenerative: Autoimmune: Metabolic: Neoplastic: Nutritional: Behavioral: Iatrogenic: Idiopathic: Immune: Infectious: Inflammatory: Toxic: Teratogenic: present at birth /genetic (congenital) breakdown of normal structure "-osis" body attacking self energy related disorders cancer (tumors) dietary mental development disorders disease caused by people unknown/ undefined etiology excess of inappropriate immune response bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc. redness, pain, swelling, heat "-itis" exposure to poisons any process altering normal fetal development physical injury from external forces Slide 6 infectious traumatic inflammation Traumatic: Nutrition Too much example carbs, acid, endotoxins Too little example Too late (if not treated) Slide 7 Neoplasic Fibropapilloma of sea turtles Slide 8 Traumatic Gunshot wounds Haarbor seal with head wounds / buck shot Slide 9 Biological / Infectious Agents Bacteria Mycoplasma Fungi Viruses Rickettsias Parasites Prions Slide 10 Disease Causing Agents Bacteria gram + exotoxins gram endotoxins Types: cocci (round shaped): pneumonia bacilli (rod shaped): TB spirilla (corkscrew shaped): syphilis Slide 11 More Agents of Disease Mycoplasma Fungi no cell wall mycotoxins Slide 12 Aspergillosis / fungi Slide 13 Even More Disease Causing Agents Parasites protozoan metazoan Slide 14 The "other" disease categories (environmental) Atmospheric pressure UV waves Electricity Ionizing radiation Brisket disease (5000 ft.) Embryonic, gut, bone marrow, germinal tissue Slide 15 Terminology Slide 16 Definitions human vs animal? Epidemiology v. epizootiology study of disease in humans v. animals Autopsy v. necropsy post mortem examination of a human v. animal Symptom v. sign subjective v. objective clinical manifestations of disease For this class: ANIMALS DO NOT HAVE SYMPTOMS Slide 17 Alopecia Loss of hair coat Due to: Endocrine disorders Parasites Other Slide 18 Anemia Low Red Blood Cell Count Due to Blood loss Disease Trauma Vit. B 12 deficiency Slide 19 Atrophy Loss of size, shape, ultimately function Slide 20 Acute Quick, often severe manifestation of disease Chronic Longer term, often less severe manifestation of disease Slide 21 Etiology The cause of a disease Bacteri, fungi, viruses, etc. Hemorrhage Bleeding Histopathology Microscopic examination of tissues Slide 22 Inflammation = "itis" Reason for inflammation? What does it do? localize and destroy the cause repair the surrounding tissue dilation of capillaries escape of plasma proteins from the bloodstream leukocyte transmigration Slide 23 Idiopathic Disease with unknown cause Infarct Area of dead tissue from lack of blood flow Jaundice / icterus Yellowing of the part or organ due to bile build up or RBC destruction Slide 24 Purulent Containing pus Renal Referring to the kidney Visceral Referring to organs or deep tissues Slide 25 Prevention Sanitation Nutrition Housing Record analysis Source of animals where you get them what you do with them who handles them Slide 26 Diseases Examples Slide 27 Slide 28 West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Transmission Cycles Mosquito vectors Culex species VIRUS S RU VI WN Virus Only VI RU S VI RU S Dead end hosts Avian reservoirs Avian National Wildlife Health Center Dead end hosts Slide 29 Foot & Mouth Disease VIRUS Teat lesions Slide 30 Photos courtesy: USDA & P. Klein Wildlife Connection.....Spread ? Slide 31 Biosecurity Measures Slide 32 BSE Mad Cow? Scrapie Mad Sheep? CWD Mad Deer?? Slide 33 Mad Cow Disease = Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BS Etiology / causes?: Prion Uncharacterized virus Virino "naked nucleic acid protected by host proteins" Signs: CNS, imbalance, tremors Diagnosis: Postmortem brain anaylsis via immunohistochemistry (IHC) Slide 34 CWD __________________________ PRION Clinical Information Diagnosis: Pathology: Microscopic examination / IHC of brain tissues Spongiform encephalopathy stations Trans.: Unknown; possibly contaminated feed; feeding and/or animaltoanimal contact Control: Zoonotic: Note: Quarantine/ test translocated cervids/ depop. Not known to be transmissible to humans* Similar to Scrapie, BSE, *CJD Slide 35 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) VIRUS Slide 36 Distribution of EHD in the United States in Wild Deer EHD Geographic Distribution Slide 37 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) Many outbreaks in Maryland; MD, VA, PA, WV White tailed deer and sika deer Hunting seasons (document hoof lesions) Invariably confusion with CWD Slide 38 (many more exist see DHMH website www.DHMH.state.md.us) Zoonotic Diseases BioTerrorism Agents: Anthrax Slide 39 Anthrax Anthrax microscopic view Decontamination Improving communications systems - animals www.dhmh.state.md.us www.edcp.org Slide 40 Anthrax Slide 41 Kno w Wh e re to G o fo r Info rm a tio n / He lp www.cdc.gov www.fws.gov www.usgs.gov www.usda.gov www.scwds.org www.dnr.state.md.us www.dhmh.state.md.us www.edcp.org www.mda.state.md.us "Promedahead" listserve 1866866CROW: MD Hot Topics 18006289944: MD DNR Hotline Slide 42 www.cdc.gov/eid www.nwhc.gov www.scwds.org Diseases Conclusions/Implications Domestic animal wildlife transmission ? Animal human transmission ? Cooperation and collaboration with state wildlife /agriculture / health agencies, universities, zoos and professional groups is essential in investigating all animal diseases Slide 43 Contact Information: Cindy P. Driscoll, DVM Clinical Instructor, VMRCVM cdriscol@umd.edu Director, Fish & Wildlife Health Program Maryland Department of Natural Resources Slide 44 THE END The End Slide 45 ...
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