Lecture 3 Climate variability

Lecture 3 Climate variability - Climate Variability and...

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Climate Variability and Emerging Diseases: Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Cindy P. Driscoll, D.V.M. MD Department of Natural Resources State Wildlife
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"Maryland must take action now to prepare for the consequences of climate change. We do not have time to wait as we are already experiencing damaging impacts of sea level rise and intensified storms along Maryland's coast. Harnessing nature's ability to adapt and heal itself, we will plant more trees to help capture excessive carbon pollution, restore more wetlands and living shorelines to help shield us from flooding and coastal storms, and plan ahead to reduce the vulnerability of Maryland's people, homes, investments and wildlife." - John R. Griffin, Department of Natural Resources Secretary
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“Exotic disease is an oxymoron” Joshua Lederberg, 1997
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Climate Variability Status in Wild Animals Number of emerging infectious diseases ’ing Global environmental situation favors disease emergence Many emerging disease threats to human, animal (zoonotic) and ecosystem health: Wildlife origin
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Disease Potential & the Wildlife / Domestic / Human Interface USGS
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Routes of Infectious Disease Transmission
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The Problems Human activities are the most potent drivers Ecological change Climate change Human demographic and behavior changes International travel and trade Microbial adaptation and change
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The Problems
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Fundamental Mechanism of Ecosystem Disease: Human Population Growth 1750 Projected to 2100 Less-developed & More-developed Regions
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Fundamental Mechanism of Ecosystem Disease: Introductions of Exotic Species Accidental introductions of plants: Poison hemlock Purposeful introductions of plants: Halogeton (oxalates) Water hyacinth (blocks sunlight, consumes nutrients) Accidental introductions of animals: Asian tiger mosquitoes (dz carriers) Sea lampreys & zebra mussels in the (Grt Lakes) Brown tree snakes in Guam (kill native birds) Purposeful introductions of animals: Asian carp: Mississippi, Illinois Rivers Starlings Toxic “cane toads” ( Bufo marinus ) - Florida, Hawaii, & Australia
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Inbreeding & loss of genetic diversity, reduced ability to resist multiple stressors Predator prey imbalances; malnutrition Stress:  cortisol,  repro hormones (pituitary) infectious diseases fertility Species endangerment; species extinction Species that depend on the declining / extinct species Fundamental Mechanism of Ecosystem Disease: H abitat Fragmentation (creation of “island ecology”)
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Disease: Excessive reliance on fossil fuels Clearing of forests Trigger 2° effects Ecosystem health declines Disease
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Fundamental Mechanism of Ecosystem Disease: Monoculture Agriculture & Forestry Habitat Loss Monoculture agriculture: Removes biodiverse plants defeats natural mechanisms of pest control Inbred cultivars susceptible to fungi, & herbivorous insects triggers use of toxic pesticides Deplete nutrients, prompting fertilization
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course ANSC 252 taught by Professor Cindydriscoll during the Spring '11 term at Maryland.

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Lecture 3 Climate variability - Climate Variability and...

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