Lecture 4 Marine Mammal Dz

Lecture 4 Marine Mammal Dz - Maryland Department of Natural...

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Unformatted text preview: Maryland Department of Natural Resources & AGNR University of MD Marine Mammal Diseases University of MD ANSC 252 October 3, 2011 Cindy P. Driscoll, D.V.M. Fish & Wildlife Health Program Discussion Outline Marine mammal Classifications Diseases Acknowledgements & References Protective Legislation Marine Mammal Protection Act Established a moratorium on "taking" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas and importing of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the United States. Endangered Species Act of 1973 Conservation of species in danger of extinction NMFS water FWS land Leatherback Sea Turtle Seal Fur Coat Illegal in the U.S. legal in Mexico Grey Whale Encounter.jpg Illegal in the U.S. Marine Mammals: Who has authority? Whales & Dolphins Pinnipeds US DOC/ NMFS Marine Mammals: Who has authority? US DOI/ FWS Polar bear Walrus Sea otter Manatee Who has authority over CAPTIVE marine mammals? USDA...and limited authority by FWS and NMFS Marine Mammals All are protected under the MMPA Several are endangered or threatened species Many are depleted or strategic stocks All must be documented and reported Documentation of human interaction and disease is critical www.noaa.gov Marine Mammals: Classification Mysticetes Baleen Whales Baleen Paired blowholes Throat grooves Odontocetes Toothed Whales Teeth Single blowhole Baleen Whales Fin Whale Odontocetes: Dolphin or Porpoise? DOLPHIN Length 3.04.0 m Dorsal fin: falcate Teeth: conical Head: distinct beak PORPOISE Length: < 2.0 m Dorsal fin: triangular Teeth: spatulate Head: blunt Marine Mammals: Classification Pinnipeds Family Odobenidae (Walrus) Family Otariidae (Fur Seals and Sea Lions) Family Phocidae (Hair Seals) Marine Mammals: Form & Function [and how they differ from terrestrial animals] General adaptations Swimming Elongate bodies & modified appendages - hydrodynamics Deep diving Myoglobin - oxygen retention on dives (dark muscles) Lactic acid and CO2 tolerated - muscles work in breath holding Atmospheric pressure - tolerated at deep depths Thermoregulation - large body & small surface : volume ratio Buoyancy - blubber and / or fat Water conservation utilize water in food, air, blubber Sensory communication, tactile senses Reniculated Kidney Marine Mammal Diseases of Importance Definitions DISEASE An impairment of the normal state of the living animal or plant body or one of its parts that interrupts or modifies the performance of the vital functions, is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms, and is a response to environmental factors (as malnutrition, industrial hazards, or climate), to specific infective agents (as worms, bacteria, or viruses), to inherent defects of the organism (as genetic anomalies), or to combinations of these factors. HEALTH The condition of an organism or one of its parts in which it performs its vital functions normally or properly. MerriamWebster (online) via medline Disease Etiology Infectious dz concepts Etiology Viral, bacterial, parasitic, toxin Clinical signs None/ minor Severe/ mortalities Transmission From environment Between animals To humans (zoonotic) Lesions Control Prevention F. Gulland image Disease Etiology Trauma Natural "Food chain" Behavioral (agression) Human Pollution (toxin, trash) Habitat degradation/ change Trauma (boat strike, direct hunting, bicatch) Population implications % of population mortalities Impact on reproduction Disease Etiology Population implications Health of population Size of population % of population impacted Speed of disease Impact on reproduction Chronic vs acute Population Health Population Level Important for species conservation At risk of extinction Distribution Individual Animal Level Generally unimportant for species conservation Depends on population health/ distribution Role of rehabilitation and release Viruses Morbillivirus Common name: Distemper Etiology: Morbillivirus Lymphoid depletion Clinical signs: Weakness, respiratory distress, nasal/ocular discharge, CNS, seizures Transmission: Aerosol and direct contact Pathology: lungs - edema, emphysema, consolidation/ INIB* LN - edema /lymphoid depletion CV- hydropericardium, hydrothorax GI - hepatic congestion CNS - non-suppurative encephalitis / INIB *INIB= intranuclear inclusion bodies Morbillivirus Bronchial Epithelium IHC staining Diagnosis: Treatment: Control: HH Risk: AM* Serology - titers of>40 appear to be significant PM* Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of viral particles Supportive, treatment of secondary infections Wild - none; captive - some success with vaccines None known Note: Responsible for mortality in seals, dolphins, porpoises; antibodies detected in whales, manatees, walrus, polar bears *AM=ante mortem *PM=post mortem Cyclical........???? Pox Virus Common Name: Tattoo, Pox Etiology: Clinical Signs: Transmission: Pathology: Pox virus; parapox pinniped; orthopox - cetaceans Pinniped - raised proliferative skin lesions Cetacean - flat, smooth "tattoo" lesions Direct contact Pinniped - Fast spread -- epidermis/ INIB - "halo", pustules Cetacean - Slow spread -- epidermis/ hyperpigmentation Diagnosis: Trx/Control: HH Risk: AM - clinical signs PM - demonstration of viral particles in section Wild - none; captive - decrease stress, isolate infected Can be transmitted to humans Pox: Pinniped v Cetacean skin lesions Atlantic White Sided Dolphin tattoo lesion AFIP AFIP Pinniped skin proliferative nodules SeaWorld "Halo" effect around cells "Halo" AFIP AFIP San Miguel Sea Lion Virus Common Name: Calici, SMSLV, Vesicular Exanthema Etiology: Calicivirus Clinical Signs: Fluid filled vesicles / ulcers, mainly on flippers Transmission: Direct contact; opal-eye fish may play a role in transmission Pathology: Diagnosis: Trx/Control: HH Risk: Note: Presence of vesicles/ spongiosis of the stratum spinosum/ ? abortions Ante Mortem - clinical signs, serology Post Mortem - histology Wild - none; captive - isolate infected animals None known A similar calicivirus - isolated from bottlenose dolphins AFIP Influenza Virus Common Name: Flu Etiology: Clinical Signs: Transmission: Pathology: Influenza type A [H7N7] General - weakness, breathing difficulty, nasal discharge Aerosol, direct contact Respiratory - thick mucinous discharge in trachea / bronchi, emphysema, bronchopneumonia, hemorrhage in alveoli, necrosis of bronchioles AM - serology titers PM - gross / histo findings Treatment: Control: HH Risk: Supportive Wild - none; captive - isolate Potential Bronchopneumonia Diagnosis: Herpes Virus Common Name: Herpes Etiology: Herpes virus Clinical Signs: Pinniped - serious systemic infections, breathing difficulties, weakness Whales - skin lesions Sea Otters - oral ulcers Transmission: Direct contact Pathology: Pinnipeds - Respiratory - pneumonia, fibrinous exudate, emphysema; GI - hepatic necrosis Whales - skin- focal dermatitis, raised nodules ulcerate heal / INIB Otters - extensive oral ulceration / INIB Herpes virus Pathology: GI Pinnipeds - Respiratory - pneumonia, fibrinous exudates, emphysema; hepatic necrosis Whales - Skin- focal dermatitis, raised nodules ulcerate heal / INIB Otters - Extensive oral ulceration / INIB Diagnosis: AM - clinical signs, titers PM - histo / INIB Trx / Control: None HH Risk: None known Sea Otter sublingual ulcer Cetacean skin ulcer Note: A case in a YOY bottlenose dolphin was Bacteria Erysipelas Etiology: Common Name: Erysipelas Erysipelas rhusiopathiae Clinical Signs: Dermatologic form - rhomboid shaped discoloration Systemic form - peracute, found dead Transmission: Ingestion of affected fish Pathology: Dermatologic form - infarcts, skin necrosis Systemic - multifocal necrosis Culture blood/ affected organs spleen, lymph nodes, kidney, liver Supportive For captives - vaccine Local skin infections Rhomboid square shaped skin lesions Diagnosis: Treatment: Control: HH Risk: Erysipelas Diagnosis: Treatment: Control: HH Risk: Culture of agent from blood and affected organs - spleen, LN, kidney, liver Supportive Vaccine Local skin infections AFIP Red-eye Leptospirosis Common Name: Lepto Etiology: Leptospira pomona Clinical Signs: Depression, anorexia, pyrexia, icterus, oral ulceration, thirst, abortion Transmission: Contact with infected fluids (virus shed for up to 150 days) Pathology: Adult : Renal - swollen kidneys / interstitial nephritis Neonate /Aborted fetus: SQ & anterior chamber hemorrhage "Red Eye" Diagnosis: Treatment: Control: HH Risk: Serum Chem. - indicates high BUN/creatinine, high WBC Supportive, Antibiotics Wild - none; endemic in West Coast CA sea lion males Zoonotic AFIP Brucellosis Common Name: Brucella Etiology: Signs: Trans: Brucella sp. Abortion, low reproductive rates Contact with affected animals Pathology: Placentitis, aborted fetus Diagnosis: Titers to Brucella Treatment: Supportive, antibiotics Control: HH Risk: None Zoonotic Mycobacteriosis Common Name: Myco Etiology: C. Signs: Trans: Mycobacteria sp. Chronic debilitation, weight loss, abscesses Horizontal; contact with affected animals Pathology: Multiple granulomatous abscesses Diagnosis: Culture/ PCR of organism Treatment: Antibiotics Control: HH Risk: NB: None Zoonotic In virtually all aquaria water systems Clostridium perfringens Common Name: None Etiology: Signs: Trans.: Cl. perfiringens Lethargy; GI distress; systemic illness Horizontal; contact with affected animals? Pathology: Multiple abscesses, GIT inflammation Diagnosis: Culture/ PCR of organism Treatment: Antibiotics? anti-toxin; vaccine Control: HH Risk: In the wild - none None Brain Heart C. Perfringens systemic infection : Bottlenose dolphin Heart inflammation / abscess Brain inflammation/ abscess Fungi & Yeast Lobomycosis Common Name: Loboa's Disease Etiology: Signs: Loboa loboi [ Lacazia loboi] ubiquitous White, lumpy crusty skin lesions, secondary bacterial infections Transmission: Direct contact Pathology: Skin - nodular lesions/ granulomatous dermatitis, yeast cells in histo Diagnosis: Clinical signs, histo Treatment: Supportive, excision is not successful Control: HH Risk: None Zoonotic Loboa's Disease: Bottlenose Dolphin skin lesions AFIP Aspergillus, Zygomycete, Fusarium Common Name: "Fungal Infections", "Asper" Etiology: Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Fusarium Clinical Signs: Aspergillus/Zygo - systemic disease, respiratory distress, anorexia Fusarium - Dermatitis Transmission: Direct contact, aerosol Grey Seal Fusarium AFIP Aspergillus, Zygomycete, Fusarium Pathology: Asper/Zygo - Respiratory - tracheal ulceration, plaque formation; G I - esophageal ulceration, plaque formation, liver necrosis; Renal necrosis; Brain - abscess Diagnosis: Demonstration of fungal hyphae Treatment: Supportive, antifungals Control: HH Risk: None Zoonotic Aspergillosis: bottlenose dolphin AFIP Candidiasis: Bottlenose Dolphin skin lesions AFIP Fungal Disease: Coccidiomycosis Coccidiomycosis Coccidiodies immitis Arid desert soil Spores infective (inhaled) Wind born Disease Histology Appear susceptible Pulmonary/ systemic infection Granulomas with organism Dr. M. Miller image Parasites Lice Common Name: Lice Etiology: Humpback whale lice Pinnipeds - Antarctophthirius microchir; Cetaceans - Cyamidae sp.; species specific Cetaceans - none apparent unless overwhelming Clinical Signs: Pinnipeds - alopecia, scratching; Transmission: Direct contact Pathology: Alopecia, dermatitis Lice Diagnosis: Presence of organisms - light microscopy Treatment: Anthelmintics Control: HH Risk: None None known Mites Common Name: Mites, Mange Etiology: Pinnipeds - Demodex sp. Clinical Signs: Pinnipeds - alopecia, thickened skin Transmission: Direct contact Pathology: Alopecia, dermatitis, demonstration of organism CSL demodectic mange AFIP Mites Diagnosis: Presence of organisms - light microscopy Treatment: Anthelmintics, dips Control: HH Risk: Captive - dip, keep animals separate None known Nasal mites AFIP Barnacles Humpback Whale Coronlua sp. Offshore Tursiops Xenobalanus sp. AFIP Lungworms Common Name: Lungworm Etiology: Pinniped - Parafilaroides, Otostrongylus Cetacean - Halocercus, Stenurus, Crassicaudia Clinical Signs: Respiratory distress, coughing, nasal discharge; renal necrosis Pathology: Suppurative or granulomatous AFIP Harbor seal Commerson's dolphin Lungworms Diagnosis: AM - fecal exam/ floatation - eggs PM - Parasites in histo section Treatment: Anthelmintics Control: HH Risk: None None Dall's Porpoise Halocercus Note: Crassicaudia - may be responsible for decline of large whale populations AFIP Nasitrema Common Name: Nasal flukes, Brain worm Etiology: Nasitrema sp. Dolphin nasal sinus invasion & destruction Clinical Signs: Blow hole discharge, circling/ disorientation Transmission: Unknown Pathology: Respiratory - Inflammation of nasal sinuses; CNS - encephalitis AFIP Nasitrema Diagnosis: Demonstration of fluke eggs in blowhole exudate Treatment: Anthelmintics Control: HH Risk: None None Note: Associated with mass strandings - West Coast; can be normal finding on PM G.I. parasites Common Name: Stomach worms Etiology: Contracaecum sp., Anasakis sp., Braunina sp., Acanthocephalon sp. Clinical Signs: Melena Transmission: Not fully understood Acanthocephalon Sea otter AFIP Contracecum CSL Pathology: Ulceration and hemorrhage in gastric and intestinal mucosa; Parasites in section Gastrointestinal (G.I.) Parasites Diagnosis: Fecal exam/ floatation - eggs Treatment: Anthelmintics Control: HH Risk: Note: None None Often normal findings on PM AFIP Elephant seal Braunina Bottlenose Dolphin AFIP Protozoal-type Disease Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii Disease Feline definitive host Spread via feces (fecaloral) Increase disease near run off Relatively common cause of stranded animals Neurological signs Slowly progressive Meningioencephalitis Histology Protozoal-type Disease Sarcocystis Sarcocystis neurona Disease Opossum definitive host Spread via feces (fecaloral) Increase disease in spring Less common than T. gondii Severe, neurological signs Cardiac disease (acute) Rapidly progressive Histology Meningioencephalitis Human Interaction: Behavioral Changes migration patterns, feeding patterns Human Interaction: Capture Myopathy Common Name: Capture myopathy, rhabdomyolysis Etiology: Struggling during capture; Vit. E / Selenium deficiency Clinical Signs: Muscle weakness, paralysis; net marks Transmission: N/A Pathology: Muscle degeneration, necrosis Note: Not a "disease" but responsible for many illnesses, deaths in marine mammals Human Interaction: Capture Myopathy Bottlenose dolphin skeletal muscle AFIP Human Interaction: Ship Strike Common Name: Ship strike; propeller strike Etiology: Blunt trauma; lacerations Ship / boat strike - often no external marks (black skin) Transmission: N/A Pathology: Control: Hemorrhage around laceration / blunt trauma Education; legislation Clinical Signs: Propeller strike - obvious sequential propeller marks [pre vs post- mortem determination = essential] Note: Not a "disease" but responsible for many illnesses, deaths in marine mammals especially N A Right Whales Human Interaction: Ship Strike Sei Whale Ship Strike Report of "Stranded Whale" Raising carcass from water Whale on bow of container ship Whale at landfill for necropsy Human Interaction: Propeller Strike Manatee Bottlenose dolphin FMRI & R. Wells Human Interaction: Entanglement CSL cervical gillnet entanglement CSL exsanguination Note: Not a "disease" but responsible for many deaths in marine TMMC mammals especially CSL & Northern Right Whales 7 ft. Baleen of N.R.W. From Same Entangled Baleen of N.R.W. Human Interaction: Gunshot Harbor Seal Bottlenose dolphin Note: Not a "disease" but responsible for many deaths in marine mammals especially seals & sea lions Fractures CSL Note: Not a "disease" but found often upon necropsy AFIP Other Bone Pathology Note: Osteomyelitis - not a "disease" but found often upon necropsy AFIP Neoplasm Cancer exists in marine mammals - but often goes unreported Transitional Cell Carcinoma - CSL - California Various forms - Beluga Whales - St. Lawrence River Clear cell cancer CSL pancreas Metatstatic cancer CSL uterus AFIP CSL domoic acid die-off Harmful Algal Blooms Common Name: HAB; "Red Tide" Etiology: Signs: Transm.: Various algae Sudden death; respiratory distress; CNS / paralysis Ingestion and inhalation; algal organisms emit toxins Pathology: Nothing obvious; hemorrhage in respiratory tract; algal organisms in GIT Control: HH Risk: Waste management; minimize farm runoff (nutrients) Not zoonotic, but toxins do affect humans [California Sea Lion massive die offs occur in California] Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) Harmful Algal Blooms are becoming one of the more important emerging diseases in marine mammals. 1987 1988 1989 1980s 2000 Mid-Atlantic dolphin die-off Brevitoxin/ HAB's contributed to event Humpback whale die-off - New England due to Saxitoxin Manatee die-offs due to Brevitoxin Hawaiian Monk Seal die-off due to Ciguatera toxin California Sea Lion die-offs due to Domoic acid (grey whales also affected) Brevitoxin Florida Manatees Lung lesions from aerosolized brevetoxins, airborne Karenia brevis cellular debris Florida DEP/FMRI. HAB Toxins Biotoxin Domoic Acid Diatom Signs / lesions Produced by algae Neurological signs Cardiac disease (dilated cardiomyopathy) Chronic or acute Hippocampal necrosis/atrophy Lymphocytic myocarditis and fibrosis Brain - Hippocampal atrophy Histology Anthropogenic Toxins Anthropogenic Oil spill Various types Shipping lanes Disease from oil spills Gatroenteritis Hypothermia Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis Pulmonary emphysema Death AFIP How cetaceans process and use sound Sources of underwater ocean noise Impact on cetacean health at level of individuals and populations Noise and Sound Pollution John S. Pritchett http://www.pritchettcartoons.com/sonar.htm What is ocean sound pollution? "...the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment...which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life..." 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, article 1.1.4 Sound and Marine Mammals Sound is used for: Communication Feeding Reproduction Navigation Predator avoidance Echolocation (odontocetes only) N. Wood Noise in the Marine Environment Natural Undersea earthquakes Volcanic eruptions Lightning strikes Precipitation Wind causing waves Biotic noise (snapping shrimp, marine mammals, fish) Anthropogenic Nuclear explosions, e.g., ship shock trials Seismic surveys Naval sonar operations Shipping Commercial and recreational fishing vessel sonar Drilling, construction, ice breakers, oceanographic experiments, acoustic harassment devices, recreational boating, etc. N. Wood Water is more dense than air 343 m/s in dry air at 20C 1500 m/s in seawater at 20C (faster at increased salinities and temperatures) Sound travels faster and farther in water Anthropogenic noise can have huge area of impact on cetaceans Within this area, sound levels received by animal = 120 dB or more Example: US Navy lowfrequency active sonar: ~3.9 million km2 http://www.dt.navy.mil/sur-str-mat/ sur-wea-eff/tim/index.html N. Wood Human Loudness Comparison Chart (dB) Threshold of human hearing Whisper Normal conversation City traffic (inside car) Level at which sustained exposure may result in human hearing loss Motorcycle Loud rock concert Pain begins Level at which short term exposure can cause permanent damage Jet engine, gun blast Death of hair cells Loudest sound possible in air 0 6070 85 9095 100 115 125 140 140 180 194 N. Wood 30 http://www.gcaudio.com/resources/howtos/loudness.html Hearing in Marine Mammals Sound & Anatomy mandibleears Sound reception Acoustic fat in lower Sound production Blowhole and air sacs Ears Acoustic fat http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=5759 Beaked Whale Stranding Bahamas Beaked whale strandings Stranding of 17 cetaceans linked to US Navy midfrequency sonar exercise Cuvier's, Blainsville's, spotted dolphin, minke 7 deaths Bilateral intracochlear and temporal subarachnoid hemorrhage Determined to have occurred before death May have compromised hearing, navigation, leading to stranding http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/marine/sonar.asp Necropsy Hemorrhage in acoustic jaw fat and melon Mass strandings of Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris; Zc), Gervais' (Mesoplodon europaeus; Me), and Blainville's (Ziphius Zc), (Mesoplodon Me), (Mesoplodon densirostris; Md) beaked whales, and other species associated with noise events (adapted from Can J. Md) Zoology 85:1091-1116(2007)). Year 1960 1963 1963 1964 1966 1967 1974 1974 1978 1978 1979 1985 1987 1988 Location Sagami Bay, Japan Gulf of Genoa, Italy Sagami Bay, Japan Sagami Bay, Japan Ligurian Sea, Italy Sagami Bay, Japan Corsica Lesser Antilles Sagami Bay, Japan Suruga Bay, Japan Sagami Bay, Japan Canary Islands Suruga Bay, Japan Canary Islands Species (numbers) Zc (2) Zc (15+) Zc (8-10) Zc (2) Zc (3) Zc (2) Zc (3), striped dolphin (1) Zc (4) Zc (9) Zc (4) Zc (13) Zc (~10), Me (1) Zc (2) Zc (3), bottlenose whale (a beaked whale) (1), pygmy sperm whale (2) Associated activity US fleet Naval maneuvers US fleet US fleet Naval maneuvers US fleet Naval patrol Naval explosion US fleet US fleet US fleet Naval maneuvers US fleet Naval maneuvers 1989 1989 1990 1991 1996 1997 1999 2000 2000 2000 2002 2002 2003 2004 2004 2005 2006 Sagami Bay, Japan Canary Islands Suruga Bay, J apan Canary Islands Greece Greece Virgin Islands Bahamas Galpagos Madeira Canary Islands Mexico Washington, USA Canary Islands and Morocco Hawai'i, USA North Carolina, USA Spain Zc (3) Zc (15+), Me (3), Md (2) Zc (6) Zc (2) Zc (12) Zc (9+) Zc (4) Zc (9), Md (3), beaked whale species (2), minke whale (2), Atlantic spotted dolphin (1) Zc (3) Zc (3) Zc (9), Me (1), Md (1), beaked whale species (3) Zc (2) Harbor porpoise (14), Dall's porpoise (1) Zc (4) Melon-headed whale (~200) Long-finned pilot whale (34), dwarf sperm whale (2), minke whale (1) Zc (4) US fleet Naval maneuvers US fleet Naval maneuvers Naval low-frequency active sonar trials Naval maneuvers Naval maneuvers Naval mid-frequency sonar Seismic research Naval mid-frequency sonar Naval mid-frequency sonar Seismic research Naval mid-frequency sonar Naval maneuvers Naval mid-frequency sonar Naval manervers NATO naval maneuvers Canary Islands September 24, 2002 NeoTapon international naval exercise Strandings began 4 hours after onset of midfrequency sonar activity Cuvier's (8), Blainsville's (1), Gervais' (1) beaked whales examined postmortem (Fernndez et al. 2005) Described "Gas and Fat Embolic Syndrome" No inflammation, neoplasia, or pathogens found Severe, diffuse congestion and hemorrhage, esp. around acoustic jaw fat, ears, brain, and kidneys Gas bubbleassociated lesions and fat emboli in vessels and parenchyma of vital organs Beaked whale pathology hemorrhage, trapped air bubbles Beaked whale pathology hemorrhage, trapped air bubbles Marine Mammals Summary Biologist and veterinarians contribute to marine mammal conservation by: Documenting cause of illnesses & deaths; serious injury Establishing protocols for sample collection Training biologists / conducting workshops (necropsy) Documenting existence of some species; life history Acknowledgements Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Dr. Leslie Dierauf, USGS NWHC The Marine Mammal Center Stranding Team MD DNR Cooperative Oxford Lab NRP MD Department of Agriculture Labs NPS Assateague Island National Seashore National Aquarium In Baltimore Ocean City, MD Public Works NOAA / FWS / MMC / USCG Dr. Tom Reidarson SeaWorld Dr. Leigh Clayton NAIB Dr. Natasha Wood References Dierauf, L. Gulland, F. Marine Mammal Medicine, CRC Press 2001 Geraci, J. Lounsbury, V. Marine Mammals Ashore, Texas Sea Grant 1993 Know Where to Go for Information www.fws.gov www.noaa.gov www.mmc.gov www.usda.gov www.dnr.state.md.us www.iaaam.org www.aazv.org www.wda.org www.marinemammalogy.org www.aqua.org References Weilgart, L. S. (2007). The impacts of anthropogenic ocean noise on cetaceans and implications for management. Can J Zool 85: 10911116 Di Guardo, G., Marruchella, G. (2005). Sonars, gas bubbles, and cetacean deaths. Vet Pathol 42(4): 517 Fernndez, A., Edwards, J. F., Rodrguez, A., et al (2005). "Gas and Fat Embolic Syndrome" Involving a Mass Stranding of Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiidae) Exposed to Anthropogenic Sonar Signals. Vet Pathol 42:446457 Dalton, Rex (2003). Scientists split over regulations on sonar use. Nature 425(6958): 549 Jepson, P. D., Arbelo, M., Deaville, R. et al (2003). Gasbubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature 425(6958): 575 576 Ketten, D. R. (1995). Estimates of blast injury and acoustic trauma zones for marine mammals from underwater explosions. In: Sensory Systems of Aquatic Mammals. J. A. Thomas and P. E. Nachtigall (eds.), De Spil Publishers, Woerden, pp. 391407 Joint Interim Report on Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 1516 March 2000 http://www.awionline.org/oceans/Noise/Interim_Bahamas_Report.pdf www.dosits.org/science/ssea/3.htm http://www.oceanmammalinst.org/underwaternoise.html http://www.scubadoc.com/obesity.html http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=5759 Maryland Department of Natural Resources & AGNR University of MD Cindy P. Driscoll, DVM Maryland Department of Natural Resources Fish & Wildlife Health Program Cooperative Oxford Laboratory 904 South Morris Street Oxford, MD 21654 E: [email protected] QUESTIONS? ...
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