Lecture 5 Toxicology

Lecture 5 Toxicology - Environmental Toxins and Wildlife...

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1 Environmental Toxins and Wildlife Erica A. Miller, DVM Founded in 1976 Oil spill response and wild bird hospital At present location (Newark, DE) since 1993 13 full-time staff (+4-10 PT in summer) Admit approx. 3,000 birds annually Presentations of Wildlife for Rehabilitation Burns Predatory Entrapment Projectile Impact Trauma Prion Fungal Parasitic Viral Bacterial Infectious "Lost" "Foundlings" True orphans Displacement Oil / Pol utants Endocrine Disruptors Natural Poisons Heavy Metals Pesticides Toxins Nutritional Neoplastic Metabolic Other Differentials When to consider toxins More than one animal with similar signs • No evidence of trauma or specific disease • Location / History • Clinical Signs Species Environments Affected Urban / Suburban lawns Agricultural fields Golf Courses Road Sides Waterways…. Species Affected All species, but Birds and Fish are the most sensitive • Predators • Insectivores • Scavengers
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2 Common Signs 1. Neurologic -A t a x i a - Torticollis/Stargazing - Anisocoria - Tremors/Seizures 2. Diarrhea/Vomiting 3. Unusual odor 4. Unusual color or feel to feathers/fur 5. Sudden deaths General Poison Treatment 1. Stabilize patient first 2. Eliminate exposure to toxin General Poison Treatment 3. Provide antidote if available 4. Eliminate absorbed poison 5. Provide supportive care Environmental Toxins Pesticides Heavy Metals Natural Poisons Endocrine Disruptors Oil and other Pollutants Pesticides Insecticides Acaricides Herbicides Rodenticides Avicides
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3 Organochlorine Toxicity Chronic toxicity (endocrine disruption) Eggshell thinning Decreased hatchability Poor survival of young Organochlorine Toxicity Low acute toxicity Prolong opening of Na+ ion gate of nerve impulse transmission Acute clinical signs: Twitching Convulsions Abnormal posture Unable to stand Respiratory failure Organochlorines in the Environment First pesticide use in 1939 Found in dying grebes in the 1950’s DDT banned in 1972
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2012 for the course ANSC 252 taught by Professor Cindydriscoll during the Spring '11 term at Maryland.

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Lecture 5 Toxicology - Environmental Toxins and Wildlife...

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