Lecture 6 Diseases of Wild Birds

Lecture 6 Diseases of Wild Birds - Diseases of Wild Birds...

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PATRICE N. KLEIN, MS VMD DACPV DACVPM SENIOR STAFF VETERINARIAN – WILDLIFE DISEASE LIAISON USDA/APHIS/VETERINARY SERVICES Diseases of Wild Birds
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http://wildlifedisease.nbii.gov
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Ecology of Influenza Genetic Reservoirs Intermixing H1, H3 H1, H2, H3 H3, H7 Commercial, LBMs, Others H1-12 H14-15 H1-2, 4-7, H9-13, 15-16 H10 H1, H3, H4, H7, H13 H1N1? HPAI H5N1 Modified from D. Swayne H3
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Avian Influenza (AI) AI (“Fowl Plague”):  Orthomyxovirus that infects  domestic  poultry, waterfowl, and other wild birds.   Type A influenza viruses:  avian species, swine, horses, mink,  seals, whales, and humans. Classified by subtype: 16 Hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 Neuraminidase (NA) Surface antigens determine serotypes (subtypes) H5, H7 are most commonly highly pathogenic Classified by pathogenicity: HPAI and LPAI OIE reportable disease:  Notifiable Avian Influenza All HPAI and any H5/H7 HA PB1 PB2 PA NP NA MA NS M2 Hemagglutinin Neuraminidase M1 Matrix
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Influenza A: Hemagglutinin Mammalia Aves Subtype Human Swine Equine Wild Ducks Shorebirds Poultry H1 + ++ + + ++ H2 (+) + + + H3 +++ ++ +++ ++ + H4 ± ++ + + H5 ± ± + + ++ H6 ++ + + H7 ± (+) + + ++ H8 + + H9 ± ± + ++ ++ H10 + + + H11 + + + H12 + + H13 ++ + H14 + H15 + + H16 +
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Ecology and Epidemiology LPAI LPAI (H1-16) Adaptation HPAI (H5/H7) HA Mutation H5N1 HPAI Re-adaptation
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Avian Influenza (AI) Horizontal Transmission-  migratory waterfowl  (ducks) are wild reservoirs; shed in feces and  secretions; spread by direct contact, contaminated  feed/water, equipment, vehicles, people, etc. Vertical Transmission-  HPAI in egg yolk/ albumin  Incubation Period-  few hours to 7 days Survival - long time in cold and moist environments;  infectivity retained in feces for 30-35 days at 4 o  C. Inactivation - by heat, dryness, pH extremes Disinfectants - bleach, Virkon-S, phenol, formalin
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Asian HPAI H5N1 Epizootics Mongolia – 2 August 2005 Whooper swans, Bar-headed geese, Ruddy shelduck, Herring gulls H5N1 HPAI virus – swan Virus - nerves of intestine, heart muscle, pancreas, lung ˙
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H5N1 HPAI Wild Bird Cases Worldwide
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Avian Influenza (AI) HPAI Clinical Signs Depression, inappetence Decreased egg production Ecchymosis- legs, feet Coughing, sneezing, sinusitis, hemoptysis Edema, cyanosis of head, wattles, comb CNS signs High mortality
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Avian Influenza (AI) HPAI Lesions Hemorrhage, edema, necrosis in  GIT, respiratory, reproductive,   integumentary systems, and CNS SQ edema in head, neck Tracheal edema and mucus Mucopurulent nasal discharges
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Avian Influenza (AI) HPAI differential diagnosis-  Avian cholera,  END, bacillary septicemia (E.coli) LPAI  –  Low mortality, milder clinical signs and lesions,  May be confused with mild respiratory diseases  (Mycoplasmosis, Rhinotracheitis, ILT, IBV)  Definitive diagnosis
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