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Terminology - 2011 Animal Science 252 Wildlife Diseases...

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2011 Animal Science 252 Wildlife Diseases TERMINOLOGY This list is includes many of the terms used throughout this semester. Many other terms may be used and should be defined looked up if in question (just like any other course or situation). Acute disease Having a short and relatively severe course if infection Alopecia Loss of hair Anaphylactic Allergic reaction; involves histamine and or vasoactive compounds Anemia Decrease of hemoglobin, Red Blood Cells (RBC) number or size Anoxia Absence of oxygen Ante Mortem Before death Antibody Large molecular weight protein produced by plasma cells in response to an antigen; antibody binds to the antigen that elicits its synthesis Anthropozoonosis Disease acquired by animals from people, and by humans from animals Atrophy Loss of size, shape, (and subsequently, function) Autolysis Cellular self-destruction post mortem (after death) Autopsy Exam of self (refers to human post mortem examination) Bacteria Unicellular microorganisms capable of independent reproduction Benign Used in reference to tumors that do not invade Bioaccumulation Accumulation of a compound in an animal over time; the rate of intake exceeds the rate of elimination Biomagnification (Bioamplification) Increase in the concentration of a compound at successive trophic levels within a food chain Cachexic Emaciated (unusually thin) 1
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Capture myopathy Degenerative change in the skeletal muscle of wild animals following handling (and subsequent organ failure) Carcinogen Substance or agent causing neoplasia (cancer) Case Fatality Rate The proportion of the number of dead individuals within a “sick” population Chronic Disease: A disease that persists for three months or more and cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication. Examples include cardiovascular disease (heart attacks, strokes, high blood pressure), diabetes, cancer, and obesity, and tend to become more common with age Circulatory Relating to the blood vessel and blood transport system Clinical Laboratory tests – i.e. – CBC, urinalysis Clinical sign (see “Sign”) Commensal organism One species benefiting from the association of two or more organisms living and sharing resources Congenital Present at birth Contagious Capable of being transmitted from one animal to another Dead-end host A species infected by a disease agent acquired from outside sources but that does not maintain the agent (i.e. – WNV & humans) Definitive host Host in an agent’s life cycle in which the agent undergoes sexual replication Direct transmission Transfer of infection from one individual to another of the same species without the requirement for involvement of another species Disease A state of being unhealthy “dis – ease” Edema Swelling due to vascular fluid accumulation outside of vessels Emaciated Unusually thin – to the point of near death Embolism Solid particle circulating in the blood (i.e. – pulmonary embolism = clot in the vessels of the lungs/ respiratory system) Encephalopathy A degenerative disease of the brain 2
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