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11.1 Agriculture the Environment and Globalization Agriculture –  Activities centered on cultivating domesticated crops and livestock in order to procure  food and fiber for human use or consumption. Domestication –  selecting plants or animals for specific characteristics and influencing their  reproduction.  hunting and gathering –  Hunting wild animals, fishing and gathering wild plants for food.  first agricultural revolution –  The rise of agriculture, which began with the domestication of plants  and animals some 11,000 years ago.  second agricultural revolution –  crop rotation –  Growing a sequence of different crops in the same field in order to maintain soil  fertility and health.  four-course system –  A system of crop rotation that is based on four-year planting regime that  removes a fallow period, balances the planting of food crops with feed crops, and incorporates  legumes that enrich soil.  third agricultural revolution –  A fundamental change in agriculture associated with technological  innovations and scientific farming techniques developed in the 20 th  century including extensive  mechanization, heavy reliance on irrigation and chemical applications, and biotechnology. monoculture –  The planting of a single crop in a field, often over a large area.  agro-biotech –  One facet of the third agricultural revolution that seeks to improve the quality and  yield of crops and livestock using techniques such as cross-breeding, hybridization, and more recently  genetic engineering.  Green Revolution –  The dramatic increase in grain production between 1965 and 1985 in Asia and  Latin America from high-yielding, fertilizer, and irrigation-dependent varieties of wheat, rice, and corn.  Gene Revolution –  The shift, since the 1980s to greater private and corporate involvement in and  control of the research.  terminator seeds – 
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genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) –  THE RISE OF FAIR TRADE How is fair trade defined on the opening page?  A social movement and trading partnership  committed to improving the plight of farmers whose situation has worsened rather than  improved as a result of global trade.  How is fair trade intended to operate?  Companies agree to  pay higher, stable prices to farmers along with an additional premium for investing in social  projects. In return farmers organize cooperatives, provide safe working conditions, reinvest in  community development, and adopt sustainable practices.  Specifically, what two concessions do  coffee companies agree to, and what four responsibilities do farmers agree to in return?  If, on its 
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