Exam 1 Review - Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Psychology - combo of psyche meaning soul and -ology - study of. it is the scientific study of mind and behavior Mind - Private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories and feelings Behavior - Observable actions of humans and nonhuman animals Nativism - Philosophical belief developed by Plato that knowledge is innate/inborn and certain behaviors are “hard-wired” or instinctive Empiricism - Developed by Aristotle and “tabula rosa” that knowledge is acquired through experiences Mind Body - Developed by Descartes and said that mind is an inmaterial substance Dualism and the body is mechanistic. The mind interacts with the body through the brain’s pineal gland Materialism - Thomas Hobbes, said the mind is what the brain does. An “epiphenomenal emergent property" - modern view Phrenology- Francis Gall, specific mental abilities are localized in different regions of the brain. Physiology — study of biological processes, eSpecially in the human body. Such as speed of nerve impulses and methods to measure mental abilities Aphasia - Broca’s aphasia: patient can understand language but not speak Weinicke’s aphasia: patient can speak but not understand language Stimulus - Helmholtz measured reaction time to applied stimuli. Stimulus is sensory input from the environment Reaction - amount of time taken to respond to stimulus. Measured nerve impulses - Time stimulation of toe has longer response time than thigh (closer to brain) Consciousness - Wundt (opened first psychological lab) believed on focusing on this. Subjective experience of world and mind. Structuralism- analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind (brightness, loudness,etc) Functionalism - the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment introspection - Subjective observation of one’s experience. Objective measurement of conscious processes Natural Selection — features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations illusion — Errors of perception, memory, or judgement where subjective experience. Gestalt Psychology - emphasize that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts. Felida X - Typically shy and quiet but would occasionally take on another personality. Would often have no recollection of what other personality had done. Dissociative Identity Disorder - occurrence of two or more distinct identities Hysteria - temporary loss of cognitive and/or motor functions usually precipitated by an emotional event. Patients would experience blindness, paralysis and other ailments without a known physical ailment Psychoanalytic Theory - an approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors Psychoanalysis - a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to gain insight for various psychological problems Unconscious Theory - approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feeling, thoughts, and behaviors Humanistic Psychology - an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings Behaviorism - the objective study of behavior as opposed to introspective studies of consciousness. Reinforcement - the consequences of a behavior determine whether it is more or less likely to occur again Cognitive Psychology - Remembering, attending, thinking, believing, evaluating, feeling and assessing. Behavioral Neuroscience - Links psychological processes to activities in nervous system. Cannot do “experimental” brain surgery. Cognitive Neuroscience - Brain scanning techniques. Which brain parts to which parts. Evolutionary Psychology - Explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of Social Psychology - Cultural Psychology - Chapter 2 Empiricism - Dogmatism - Method : Operational Definition - Electromyograph - Measure - Validity - Construct Validity - Predictive Validity- Reliability - Power - abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection Study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior. Study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observation of it. Method : set of rules and techniques for observation that allow observers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and other errors that simple observation may produce Develop theories set of rules and techniques for observation that allow observers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and other errors that simple observation may produce A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured A device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person’s skin A device that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers The characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate interferences from it The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions The tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing. The tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things. Case Method - A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual Population - The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured Sample - Law of Large Numbers - Frequency distribution - Normal distribution — The partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study A statistical law stating that as sample size increases, the attributes of a sample will more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which it was drawn A graphical representation of the measurements of a sample that are arranged by the number of times each measurement was observed A frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical Measures of Central Tendency - Mode - frequency (most used) Range - Mean - average Median - middle The numerical difference between the smallest and largest in a frequency distribution Demand Characteristics - Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people Naturalistic Observation - Blind Experiments - Double Blind - Variable - to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave A method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments Expectations can influence observations. Expectations can influence reality. Researchers who expect to see different things in an experiment may unknowingly assist in the results An observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant A property whose value can vary or change Correlation Coefficient - A statistical measure of the direction and strength f a correlation, which is signified by the letter r. Measure of direction and strength. r = 1 : correlation increases upwards. r = —1 correlation decreases downward. r = 0 correlation is scattered and non related Natural Correlation - A correlation observed between naturally occurring variables Third - Varible Correlation problems - The fact that the causal realtionship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third—variable correlation Matched - Samples — An observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control groups in order to eliminate the possibility that a third (and not the independent variable) caused changes in the dependent variable. Matched Pairs - An observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable (and not the independent variable) caused changes in the dependent variable. Experiment - A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables Manipulation - A characteristic of experimentation in which the researcher artificially creates a pattern of variation in an independent variable in order to determine its causal powers. Manipulation usually results in the creation of an experimental group and a control group Independent variable — The variable that is manipulated in an experiment Dependent Variable - The variable that is measured in a study Control Group - One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment that is not exposed to the stimulus being studied. Experimental Group - One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of in independent variable in an experiment, the experimental group is exposed to the stimulus being studied and the control group is not. Self — Selection - Randomization — internal Variability - External Variability - The case in which a participants inclusion in the experimental or control groups is determined by the participant. A procedure to ensure that a participants inclusion in the experimental or control group is not determined by a third variable. The characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and dependent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way Theory — A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between two or more properties. Theories lead to hypotheses Hypothesis - A specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory Random Sampling — Informed Consent - Debriefing — Structure of Neuron Glial Cells - synapse - sensory neurons - A technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample A written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail. A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psyhologists provide to people after they have participated in the study. Neurons are made up of 3 parts: a cell body that houses the chromosomes with the organisms DNA and maintains the health of the cell, dentrites that receive information from other neurons, and an exon that transmits information to other neurons, muscles, and glands. Support cells found in the nervous system The junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dentrites or cell body of another Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain vie the spinal cord motor neurons - lnterneurons — Resting Potential - Action Potential — Refractory Period — Neurotransmitters- Receptors - Endorphins - Nervous System: Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement. Neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron’s cell membrane. -70mV An electric signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse. +40mV The time following an action period during which a new action potential cannot be initiated Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a neuron’s dentrites, Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate a new electric signal Chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain Central Nervous System- The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain Peripheral Nervous System - Somatic Nervous System - Autonomic Nervous System— Sympathetic Nervous System - Parasympathetic Nervous System- and spinal cord The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body’s organs and muscles. A set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state Hindbrain - Midbrain - Forebrain— Cerebral Cortex - Occipital Lobe — Parietal Lobe - Temporal Lobe— Frontal Lobe- Corpus Collosum - Gene — Chromosomes - Heritability - An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord. Sometimes called brainstem. Controls the basic functions of life. Includes the medulla, the cerebellum, and the pons The midbrain is important for orientation and movement. It includes structures such as the tectum and tegmentum. The forebrain is the highest level of the brain and is critical for complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions. The forebrain is divided into two parts: the cerebral cortex and the underlying subcortical structures. These include the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, and hippocampus. The corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres of the brain. The outermost layer of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement A think band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres The unit of hereditary transmission Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double—helix configuration A measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2012 for the course PSYC 1113 taught by Professor Hargett during the Fall '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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Exam 1 Review - Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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