Exam 2 - Psychology 1 l 13 Exam 2 Name: Date: 1. Accustomed...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 1 l 13 Exam 2 Name: Date: 1. Accustomed to the sound of the old can opener, your cat still rushes to her food dish even when she hears the sound of the new can opener for the first time. Your cat is definitely smart; more than that, she is exhibiting: A) habituation. B discrimination. generalization. D) spontaneous recovery. 2. The average intelligence test score has been rising by about 0.3% every year. This is known as: Murphy's law. @ the Flynn effect. ) the bell curve. D) Williams syndrome. 3. The idea that members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members, but may not he possessed by every member is called: A exemplar theory. é family resemblance theory. ) prototype theory. D) category—specific deficit. 4. The process by which we transform what we think, feel, and perceive into a memory is known as: A) memory. @ encoding. storage. D) retrieval. 5. Howard Gardner argued that standard intelligence tests measure only the first three of the eight abilities in his categorization because they are the abilities: A most valued by Eastern culture. most valued by Western culture. C) least valued by Eastern culture. D) least valued by Western culture. 6. Deep structure refers to: A) the grammar of a sentence. B) how a sentence is worded. the meaning of a sentence. D) the morphology of a sentence. 7. Children make errors when learning to speak, and the errors they make still grammatical rules. é) many; do not respect few; respect C) many; respect D) few; do not respect 13an 1 8. Biological preparedness in organisms is a(n): particular ability to mature and grow as a response to an increase in hormones. propensity for learning particular kinds of association. inborn ability to reproduce. D) trait particular to students who study for their science classes. 9. Research has shown that different aspects of a single memory are stored: A) in the hippocampus and adjacent areas of the cortex. B) primarily in the hippocampus. C) in the brain's temporal lobe. @ in different places in the brain. 10. You have trained your dog, Spike, to fetch a can of soda whenever you say, “Go, Spike!” Your grandmother, who is hard of hearing, has mistaken your dog's name as Scott and tries to get a soda by saying, “Go, Scott!” Spike does nothing. This behavior is an example of: generalization. @ discrimination. ) adaptation. D) poor training. 11. Andrea scored 130 on a modern IQ test. About what percentage of the population score higher than that? ) 10% C) 15% D) 20% 12. Susan's mom called Susan on her cell phone to ask her to pick up eight items from the grocery store on her way home from work. Since Susan was on the bus with no way to make a list when her mom called, she had to remember the items. She grouped them into categories, thereby making use of: A) mnemonics. B elaborative encoding. @ organizational encoding. ) digital memory encoding. 13. Billy Bob's Big Burger Barn is your favorite restaurant, and lately you've noticed that every time you think about stopping there for a burger afier classes, your mouth starts to salivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, thinking about Billy Bob's burgers is the ; your salivation is the US;UR C?) CS;CR ) CS;UR D) US; CR 14. Iconic memory is a fast-decaying store of: ._ rehearsal memory. é? Visual memory. echoic memory. D) auditory memory. Dan-c: ’) 15 . Lauren has just begun to use two-word phrases, such as “give doll” and “throw ball.” Lauren is probably months old. A 12—18 18—24 ) 24—36 D) 36—48 16. Which of the following is likely to have produced a flashbulb memory? A the night you lost your first tooth @ planes hitting the World Trade Center on September ll, 2001 ) your fifth birthday party D) the last episode of Pimp My Ride 17. In Albert Bandura's classic study, children who watched an adult pummel the Bobo doll: A) were even more aggressive after seeing the adult model punished for aggressive behavior. B) were increasingly aggressive but not in the same manner as the adult model. C decreased their aggressiveness when the adult model was rewarded for aggressive behavior. @ were more likely to behave aggressively themselves. 18. Skinner explained that superstitions result from the: A unintended reinforcement of desired behavior. @ unintended reinforcement of inconsequential behavior. C) intended reinforcement of desired behavior. D) intended reinforcement of inconsequential behavior. 19. The linguistic relativity hypothesis holds that: A) different languages use different grammatical constructions. @ language shapes the nature of thought. ) different areas of the brain are used when native speakers of a language (versus non-native speakers) communicate. D) language is primarily a mental activity, unrelated to brain activity. 20. The principle that behaviors that are followed by a “satisfying state of affairs” tend to be repeated and those that produce an “unpleasant state of affairs” are less likely to be repeated is known as: A) the Skinner box. B) operant behavior. @ the law of effect. D) operant conditioning. 21. Wally is given a list of twenty objects to memorize in order. Wally imagines a walk from home to school and pictures one of the objects on each street corner. What technique of memory is Wally probably using? A) encoding specificity B) chunking @ elaborative encoding visual imagery encoding 22. The view that children are biologically predisposed to process language is called the theory. A) fast-mapping B interactionist nativist D) linguistic relativity Dnnc. ’1 23. When Broca’s area is damaged, patients: A) have a hard time understanding language. B) can produce grammatical speech. produce sentences that tend to be meaningless. @ have a hard time with speech production. 24. A mother frustrated with her teenager's backtalk takes away the teenager's cell phone. This action is an example of: A) positive reinforcement. B) negative reinforcement. positive punishment. negative punishment. 25. The store of auditory information that decays very rapidly is called memory. A iconic ‘ echoic ) tactile D) organic 26. Mary, a professional ice skater, had a horrible accident that resulted in some memory loss. However, after she was released from the hospital, she could skate as well as before. Although she could not remember when and how she learned how to skate, her skating proficiency was intact. This success is probably due to memory A) episodic B flashbulb é procedural D) semantic 27. When a classically conditioned dog stops salivating after hearing a buzzer and not being presented with food, the result is an example of: A) generalization. B) second-order conditioning. acquisition. ' extinction. 28. You are conditioning an elephant to startle at the sound of a trombone. Every time you play the trombone you show the elephant a mouse, which startles the elephant. Eventually the elephant startles at just the sound of the trombone. However, after playing the trombone 10 more times, the elephant exhibits no response. The result is an example of: A) generalization. B) second-order conditioning. I) acquisition. extinction. 29. Simon is meek, tidy, quiet, and overly concerned with order and detail. People guess that he is a bookkeeper because of: A) the availability heuristic. B) the similarity heuristic. C the anchoring heuristic. the representativeness heuristic. Dnno A 30. ctional fixedness occurs when: y we tend to perceive the functions of objects as fixed or unchanging. ) we persist in applying a large set of solutions to a wide range of problems. C) we discover a “prime solution” that applies to several analogous problems. D) we fix a problem by finding the correct solution. 3 1. Robert Sternberg suggested that there are three kinds of intelligence, which include all the following except: A) analytic intelligence B) creative intelligence @ practical intelligence inductive intelligence 32. A parent spanking a misbehaving child is an example of: A) positive reinforcement. a negative reinforcement. C) - positive punishment. negative punishment. 33. The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal, typical use is called: A) practical reasoning. belief bias. é); availability bias. functional fixedness. 34. The original measure of intelligence was designed to: A) weed out the lower scoring immigrants. @ identify children who needed additional instruction in school. ) weed out the lower scoring immigrants and identify children who needed additional instruction in school. D) identify the academically gifted. 35. Playing the hot-or—cold game, where you direct someone to move around the room toward a goal known only to you by telling the person whether he or she is getting warmer or cooler is an example of which behavioral process? A) extinction B) fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement @ generalization shaping 36. When Paul studies for a psychology test, he tries to remember important terms by relating them to “his past experiences and knowledge. He is using the strategy of: ) elaborative encoding. Visual imagery encoding. C) organization encoding. D) long-term memory encoding. 37. The phrase “the magical number seven, plus or minus two” is used to describe: A) sensory memory duration. B) short—term memory duration. C) sensory memory capacity. @ short-term memory capacity. Dana R 38. The psychologist who is credited with starting the behaviorist movement was: A Ivan Pavlov. John B. Watson. Sigmund Freud. D) Gordon Allport. 39. A person of low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability in some area is called: A) a prodigy. B) a genius. @ mentally retarded. a savant. 40. A(n) schedule is based on the number of responses needed to achieve reinforcement. ‘ \ interval ® ratio joint D) conditional 41. Learning to punch in a phone number by the pattern that your finger moves around the key pad is an example of what type of learning? A) operant conditioning B) respondent conditioning semantic learning implicit learning 42. Which of the following expressions is a single morpheme? ) b ® boy ) the boy D) the boy cried 43. Sam gets a free pretzel using his Pretzel Smorgasbord card with every tenth pretzel he buys. This arrangement is an example of a(n) schedule. A) variable interval B fixed interval Q fixed ratio variable ratio 44. 'ch of the following statements is not true? Women routinely outscore men on tests of spatial memory. B) Whites routinely outscore Latinos on intelligence tests. C) Men routinely outscore women in abstract mathematical domains. D) Asians routinely outscore Whites on intelligence tests. 45. According to observational learning, after Ashley saw her sister hurt her leg jumping off the bed, Ashley would be: A) more likely to jump off the bed. B just as likely to jump off the bed. é less likely to jump off the bed. just as likely to jump off the bed but with more caution. Dana A 46. Using the meaning of words to think about words is known as judgment. A) storage B) encoding Visual semantic 47. The case of HM. is a documented case of a patient whose speech skills and intelligence were unaffected by the removal of parts of his temporal lobe but who could not form new long-term memories. Which disorder did H.M. have? A) normal forgetting B) retrograde amnesia C prograde amnesia @ anterograde amnesia 48. Devin was recently injured in a car accident on his way home from school. Afterward, he was physically fine and had just a couple scratches. However, he began to realize that he did not remember anything before the accident. Devin was experiencing: anterograde amnesia. @ retrograde amnesia. aplysia. D) proactive interference. 49. Claire spent $100 for a nonrefundable ticket to a play. Then she found out her granddaughter‘s first dance recital was that day. Claire really wanted to go to the recital, but she felt obligated to go to the play. Claire was displaying: the representative heuristic. @ the sunk-cost fallacy. C) functional fixedness. D) the availability bias. 50. Rose, who has an intelligence score of 70, can play the piano beautifully and without looking at any music. It is likely that: A) Rose is autistic. B) the IQ test that Rose took was administered incorrectly. Rose is a prodigy. Rose is a savant. 51. In the United States one of the biggest predictors of performance on intelligence tests is: A) gender. B ethnicity. socioeconomic status. D) energy level. Dona ‘7 52. Whenever Andrea goes to the library to study, she always takes a Red Bull energy drink with her and drinks it while she studies. As the semester progresses, she notices that she does considerably better on an exam when she drinks a Red Bull during the exam. She does better because of: sensory memory store. @ state—dependent retrieval. ) transfer—appropriate processing. D) episodic memory. 53. Children were asked to report their race before taking a math test. This resulted in poorer erformance for children. , African American ‘6 V Asian American C) European American D) female 54. Long-term memory can be broken up into two broad types, memory that requires conscious recall, referred to as memory, and memory that does not require conscious recall, or memory. implicit; explicit explicit; implicit C) semantic; episodic D) procedural; priming 55. A theory of categorization that says we make category judgments by comparing a new instance a- h stored memories for other instances of the category is called: exemplar theory. B) family resemblance theory. C) prototype theory. D) linguistic relativity hypothesis. 56. A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached is called a(n): algorithm. @ heuristic. C) prototype. D) exemplar. 57. A psychologist would measure fluid intelligence generally by tests that measure: A) vocabulary. B) factual information. . auditory perception. ability to solve novel abstract problems under time pressure. habituation. 3 ) acquisition. C) extinction. D) generalization. 58. longer hearing a clock when it chimes every hour in one's own home is an example of: Dnna Q 5 9. Judie is at a sleepover, and all the girls are telling about the first time they were kissed. Judie says, “We were sitting on the front porch enjoying the day . . . ” and continues the story. What type of memory is Judie using? A) procedural B) implicit explicit episodic 60. The letter “g” is used to represent the notion of: A) primary mental abilities. B) specific abilities. group factors. general intelligence. 61. Danielle is playing Trivial Pursuit and is asked to name the seven castaways on Gilligan's Island. She names all but one. She feels sure she knows the name and thinks the first initial is G, but she cannot come up with the answer. Danielle is experiencing: blocking. tip—of—the—tongue phenomenon. C) retroactive interference. D) transience. 6. probably greater than 6. C) anywhere between 5 and 7. D) impossible to tell from the information given. 62. @zie displays the mental ability typical of a 6-year-old child. Therefore, her mental age is: ) 63. In one particular study in Loftus‘s research on repressed memories, about a quarter of the people interviewed had a memory of being lost in a shopping mall at age 5 and eventually being reunited with their family. The interesting thing about this research was that: A) Loftus herself had been lost in a mall at age 5. B these memories were verified by eyewitnesses. @ these memories were false. ) these memories were those of twins. practical B) analytic C) crystallized D) creative 64. cording to Robert Sternberg, problem—solving in daily life requires intelligence. 65. According to Howard Gardner, standard intelligence tests measure which three abilities? A) interpersonal, logical-mathematical, and naturalistic B) spatial, musical, bodily—kinesthetic linguistic, interpersonal, and naturalistic 6 spatial, linguistic, and logical-mathematical classical conditioning. B) semantic conditioning. C) episodic conditioning. D) paired conditioning. 66. @n Pavlov, while studying spit and drool in dogs, discovered the mechanism behind: Drums 0 67. The “best” or “most typical” member of a category is called a(n): concept. @ prototype. ) exemplar. D) heuristic. 68. The creator(s) of the first intelligence tests was/were: Henry Goddard. @ Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. Charles Spearman. D) Louis Thurstone. 69. Which of the following intelligence tests is most widely used today? A) Thurstone‘s Primary Mental Abilities Test B) Raven's Progressive Matrices Test C) Gardner's Multiple lntelligences Test @ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 70. Your friend's mother was always baking ginger-flavored cookies whenever you were at their house. You loved those cookies, and would eat several each time you visited. One day, you noticed that you started to drool as you walked up the front steps to the house, before you smelled the cookies. What is responsible for this phenomenon? A) going up steps B) outside temperature association between entering the house and laughter g» association between entering the house and eating the cookies Donn 1n ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2012 for the course PSYC 1113 taught by Professor Hargett during the Fall '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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Exam 2 - Psychology 1 l 13 Exam 2 Name: Date: 1. Accustomed...

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