3122012WtrOutlineChapter2PP

3122012WtrOutlineChapter2PP - DNA Week 2 1 DNA Review DNA...

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DNA Week 2 1
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DNA Review DNA Cell cycle Proteins Flow of information 2
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DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid] The primary information-bearing molecule of life Proteins are made in accordance with the information encoded in DNA 3
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Nucleic Acids A class of macromolecules that include DNA, RNA and ATP Nucleotides The building blocks of nucleic acids; they consist of a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogen-containing base [there are five major types of bases, usually designed by their first letter: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, (& Uracil in RNA)] 4
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Genome The complete collection of an organism's genetic information 5
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Genes: A segment of DNA that may contain regulatory information and information for the synthesis of proteins There are approximately 25,000-30,000 6
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Chromosomes The structural unit containing most of an organism's genome Consists of DNA and associated proteins [chromatin] Human genome is made up of 23 7
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The cell cycle, cell division & DNA replication Cell division: approximately 25 million cell divisions take place per second! Cell division Necessary for growth, repair and replacement of dying cells DNA replication: the duplication of DNA before cell division Cell cycle: the repeating pattern of growth, genetic replication, and division 8
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Proteins Greek: proteion, "first‘” Class of macromolecules composed of amino acids; many enzymes and hormones are proteins and proteins Also involved in transport, protection, structure, storage and communication 9
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